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Gavin P Vinson and Caroline H Brennan

partially underlie both the behavioural effects of CRH in male rats (44) and also the increase in CRH secretion under conditions of stress. This may not be true in other situations such as the increased HPA activity in adrenalectomized animals (45) . This

Open access

Sheila Leone, Lucia Recinella, Annalisa Chiavaroli, Claudio Ferrante, Giustino Orlando, Michele Vacca, Roberto Salvatori, and Luigi Brunetti

-deficient Ames dwarf mice, GH receptor/GH binding protein-knockout (GHRKO) GH-resistant mice and GHRH-knockout (GHRHKO) mice show increased lifespan ( 7 , 8 ). Both Ames and GHRKO strains do not show altered behavioural, learning and memory parameters, but

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Sakina Kherra, Wendy Forsyth Paterson, Filiz Mine Cizmecioglu, Jeremy Huw Jones, Mariam Kourime, Heba Hassan Elsedfy, Sameh Tawfik, Andreas Kyriakou, Mohamad Guftar Shaikh, and Malcolm David Cairns Donaldson

features include hypotonia, hyperphagic obesity, mild-to-moderate learning disability, major behaviour difficulties, impaired linear growth, and hypogonadism ( 4 , 5 , 6 ). Full independent living in adulthood is precluded by the behaviour difficulties

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Carlo Cinque, Manuela Zinni, Anna Rita Zuena, Chiara Giuli, Sebastiano G Alemà, Assia Catalani, Paola Casolini, and Roberto Cozzolino

behavioural and hormonal profile of animals ( 17 ). Thus, it could be useful to leave the animals in standard social condition during faecal sampling, to obtain more accurate and reliable measurements in laboratory rodents. The aim of our study was to set up a

Open access

R Walia, M Singla, K Vaiphei, S Kumar, and A Bhansali

was based on the presence of high basal LH, FSH and T on either side of the ‘window period’. Gender identity, role and behaviour were assessed with the help of clinical psychologist. LH, FSH and T hormones were measured with radioimmunoassay till 2006

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Roberto Cosimo Melcangi, Livio Casarini, Marco Marino, Daniele Santi, Samantha Sperduti, Silvia Giatti, Silvia Diviccaro, Maria Grimoldi, Donatella Caruso, Guido Cavaletti, and Manuela Simoni

the levels of neuroactive steroids not only occurred in plasma and CSF but also in brain areas, such as cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus ( 27 ), associated to depressive-like behaviour, alterations in neurogenesis, gliosis, neuroinflammation

Open access

Ashley K Clift, Omar Faiz, Robert Goldin, John Martin, Harpreet Wasan, Marc-Olaf Liedke, Erik Schloericke, Anna Malczewska, Guido Rindi, Mark Kidd, Irvin M Modlin, and Andrea Frilling

disseminated disease ( 10 , 11 , 12 ). Furthermore, the limitations of currently available mono-analyte biomarkers for predicting disease activity and behaviour; for example, the poor sensitivity and specificity of chromogranin A, are appreciated in the

Open access

R C S van Adrichem, L J Hofland, R A Feelders, M C De Martino, P M van Koetsveld, C H J van Eijck, R R de Krijger, D M Sprij-Mooij, J A M J L Janssen, and W W de Herder

considered as important biochemical and pathological markers, respectively, for GEP NET clinical behaviour. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system has been suggested as an important regulator of GEP NET proliferation and differentiation (2) . Up to

Open access

Giulia Bresciani, Angeliki Ditsiou, Chiara Cilibrasi, Viviana Vella, Federico Rea, Marco Schiavon, Narciso Giorgio Cavallesco, Georgios Giamas, Maria Chiara Zatelli, and Teresa Gagliano

-differentiated neoplasms characterised by an indolent behaviour to poorly differentiated forms with a high aggressive potential ( 6 , 7 , 8 ). The clinical management of BP-NENs needs a multidisciplinary approach but to date the only available curative treatment remains

Open access

Angelica Lindén Hirschberg

Emerging evidence indicates that testosterone, which can increase muscle mass and strength, stimulates erythropoiesis, promotes competitive behaviour, and enhances the physical performance of women. Indeed, the levels of testosterone within the normal female range are related to muscle mass and athletic performance in female athletes. Furthermore, among these athletes, the prevalence of hyperandrogenic conditions, including both polycystic ovary syndrome and rare differences/disorders of sex development (DSD), which may greatly increase testosterone production, are elevated. Thus, if the androgen receptors of an individual with XY DSD are functional, her muscle mass will develop like that of a man. These findings have led to the proposal that essential hyperandrogenism is beneficial for athletic performance and plays a role in the choice by women to compete in athletic activities. Moreover, a recent randomized controlled trial demonstrated a significant increase in the lean mass and aerobic performance by young exercising women when their testosterone levels were enhanced moderately. Circulating testosterone is considered the strongest factor to explain the male advantage in sport performance, ranging between 10 and 20%. It appears to be unfair to allow female athletes with endogenous testosterone levels in the male range (i.e. 10–20 times higher than normal) to compete against those with normal female androgen levels. In 2012, this consideration led international organizations to establish eligibility regulations for the female classification in order to ensure fair and meaningful competition, but the regulations are controversial and have been challenged in court.