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Johan G Beun, Pia Burman, Olle Kämpe, Eystein S Husebye, Stephanie Hahner, Jette Kristensen, Alida Noordzij, and Per Dahlqvist

The number of individuals in Europe with primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency (AI) is estimated to be 20–50 per 100,000 ( 1 ). AI is characterised by a deficit in synthesis and release of cortisol, with symptoms including tiredness

Open access

Natacha Driessens, Madhu Prasai, Orsalia Alexopoulou, Christophe De Block, Eva Van Caenegem, Guy T’Sjoen, Frank Nobels, Christophe Ghys, Laurent Vroonen, Corinne Jonas, Bernard Corvilain, and Dominique Maiter

Introduction Primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) is a rare disease, most commonly of auto-immune origin. There is a global variation in prevalence from 80 to 145 per million in Europe, with the highest case numbers reported in Scandinavian

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Amit Kumar, Maria Ghosh, and Jubbin Jagan Jacob

principal cause of euvolemic hyponatremia (EuVHNa). Although SIAD has a specific diagnostic criteria, it remains a diagnosis of exclusion and needs the absence of secondary adrenal insufficiency (AI) and hypothyroidism as an essential criterion for the

Open access

V Guarnotta, C Di Stefano, A Santoro, A Ciresi, A Coppola, and C Giordano

Introduction Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is characterized by high morbidity and mortality, likely due to inappropriate glucocorticoid (GC) treatment and no physiological daily exposure. Indeed, conventional GC treatment, with hydrocortisone (HC

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Kathrin Zopf, Kathrin R Frey, Tina Kienitz, Manfred Ventz, Britta Bauer, and Marcus Quinkler

GR functionality. In patients with bronchial asthma, the Bcl I polymorphism seems to at least partially explain the development of a severe form of asthma associated with resistance to glucocorticoids ( 10 ). Patients with adrenal insufficiency

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Lia Ferreira, João Silva, Susana Garrido, Carlos Bello, Diana Oliveira, Hélder Simões, Isabel Paiva, Joana Guimarães, Marta Ferreira, Teresa Pereira, Rita Bettencourt-Silva, Ana Filipa Martins, Tiago Silva, Vera Fernandes, Maria Lopes Pereira, and Adrenal Tumors Study Group of the Portuguese Society of Endocrinology

Introduction Addison disease (AD) or primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) is a life-threatening disease that results from bilateral destruction or dysfunction of the adrenal cortex ( 1 ). PAI is a rare disease with a reported prevalence of

Open access

Hanna F Nowotny, Jillian Bryce, Salma R Ali, Roberta Giordano, Federico Baronio, Irina Chifu, Lea Tschaidse, Martine Cools, Erica LT van den Akker, Henrik Falhammar, Natasha M Appelman-Dijkstra, Luca Persani, Guglielmo Beccuti, Ian L Ross, Simona Grozinsky-Glasberg, Alberto M Pereira, Eystein S Husebye, Stefanie Hahner, S Faisal Ahmed, and Nicole Reisch

adrenal insufficiency (AI) ( 7 ). Another problem described in SARS-CoV is the molecular similarity of certain amino acid sequences of the virus itself with those of adrenocorticotropic hormone. It has been hypothesized that this could impair the normal

Open access

Marcus Quinkler, Bertil Ekman, Claudio Marelli, Sharif Uddin, Pierre Zelissen, Robert D Murray, and on behalf of the EU-AIR Investigators

cortisone, resulting in higher systemic availability of the active 11β-hydroxy form, prednisolone ( 12 ). Prednisolone is used in some patients with adrenal insufficiency (AI) as hormone replacement therapy. Advocates of prednisolone highlight that it

Open access

Ida Staby, Jesper Krogh, Marianne Klose, Jonas Baekdal, Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen, Lars Poulsgaard, Jacob Bertram Springborg, and Mikkel Andreassen

hypopituitarism both before and after surgery. Evaluation of hypopituitarism includes clinical examination and assessment of pituitary hormone axes. Most crucial is the evaluation of adrenal function to secure proper treatment of adrenal insufficiency (AI) and to

Open access

Salem A Beshyah, Khawla F Ali, and Hussein F Saadi

attracted the most attention with the largest volume of literature ( 5 ). Nevertheless, significant deficiencies remain in guidance toward the management of other endocrinological disorders during Ramadan ( 6 ). Adrenal insufficiency (AI) represents a