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Open access

Emmanuel K Fai, Cheryl Anderson, and Victor Ferreros

Introduction Individual patient attitudes and intentions can influence adherence to the use of medical therapies. ‘Adherence to the use of medical therapy’ has been defined as the level of participation expected of an individual who has agreed

Open access

Ekaterina Koledova, George Stoyanov, Leroy Ovbude, and Peter S W Davies

, and daily subcutaneous injections may present a significant burden ( 6 ). Poor adherence to the injection regimen is a major concern in the management of growth disorders, and regular assessment of adherence is an essential component of successful

Open access

María Dolores Rodríguez Arnao, Amparo Rodríguez Sánchez, Ignacio Díez López, Joaquín Ramírez Fernández, Jose Antonio Bermúdez de la Vega, Diego Yeste Fernández, María Chueca Guindulain, Raquel Corripio Collado, Jacobo Pérez Sánchez, Ana Fernández González, and ECOS Spain Study Collaborative Investigator Group

periods of time ( 7 ). Some studies have suggested that non-adherence to treatment occurs in a variable percentage of subjects ( 8 , 9 , 10 ). The main cause for minor efficacy in r-hGH therapy is the lack of adherence to treatment or non

Open access

Suma Uday, Ardita Kongjonaj, Magda Aguiar, Ted Tulchinsky, and Wolfgang Högler

supplementation policies across Europe even for the existing population. We aimed to explore the differences in vitamin D policies and the factors relating to policy implementation that influence adherence rates. Methods A questionnaire with 20 questions

Open access

Shota Dzemaili, Jitske Tiemensma, Richard Quinton, Nelly Pitteloud, Diane Morin, and Andrew A Dwyer

comparison with particular patient populations of interest (i.e. women with infertility and men with CHH and patients with rare endocrine disorders and chronic conditions). The Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS) is an 8-item instrument that assesses

Open access

Werner F Blum, Abdullah Alherbish, Afaf Alsagheir, Ahmed El Awwa, Walid Kaplan, Ekaterina Koledova, and Martin O Savage

provocative testing. IGF-I and IGFBP-3 measurements can inform the clinician about adherence to GH treatment and, if maintained at <+2 SDS, will generally avoid GH over-dosage. As explained above, multiple factors can influence serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3

Open access

Hei Yi Vivian Pak, Andrew Lansdown, Peter Taylor, Dafydd Aled Rees, John Stephen Davies, and Caroline Hayhurst

treatment adherence ( 6 , 7 ). In UK practice, often a secondary care endocrinologist or the primary care physician conveys the diagnosis to the patient before referral to a tertiary centre multidisciplinary team (MDT). This model is increasingly the gold

Open access

T P Parikh, B Stolze, Y Ozarda, J Jonklaas, K Welsh, L Masika, M Hill, A DeCherney, and S J Soldin

fluctuations of most of these aforementioned steroids in a suitable cohort of healthy controls to emphasize the need to maintain strict adherence to time of blood sample draw and requirement of time-dependent reference intervals. Simultaneous measurement of

Open access

Jan Calissendorff and Henrik Falhammar

indication  Agranulocytosis 9 (33%)  Hepatotoxicity 2 (7%)  Other side-effects 11 (41%)  Poor adherence 5 (19%) Discussion Graves’ disease is a common condition, however, it can have serious consequences

Open access

Mirjana Kocova, Vesna Janevska, and Violeta Anastasovska


Testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs) are found in 30–94% of adult males with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). We sought to explore TART appearance through yearly ultrasound examination of testes in young boys with CAH, and its association with metabolic control and genetic mutations.


Twenty-five boys with 21-hydroxylase deficiency in the age group 4–18 years diagnosed during the period 2001–2016 were included in the study. ACTH, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione and testosterone were measured at 4-month intervals. Growth and BMI were assessed at the time of evaluation. PCR/ACRS method was used for CYP21A2 gene analysis. Testicular ultrasound examination was performed yearly.


TARTs were detected by ultrasound in 8 children at the age of 6–16 years (13.2 years average). Five had salt-wasting form, two had simple virilizing form and one had non-classic form of CAH. Significant differences in the17OHP and androstenedione levels were detected between the boys, adherent and non-adherent to therapy. Inadequate metabolic control was not different in boys with and without TART (11/17 and 5/8 respectively). No significant difference was detected in the distribution of genetic mutations or adherence to therapy between patients with and without TARTs. One patient had a mutation not reported thus far in TART and another developed leukemia.


TART is not rare in young boys with CAH, irrespective of the specific mutation or metabolic control. Ultrasound screening helps timely diagnosis and adjustment of therapy.