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Neil R Chappell, Beth Zhou, Amy K Schutt, William E Gibbons and Chellakkan S Blesson

Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common ovulatory disorder in the world, affecting 5–10% of women, translating to ~100 million women worldwide ( 1 ). PCOS is associated with increased obstetric risks including

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Mírian Romitti, Vitor C Fabris, Patricia K Ziegelmann, Ana Luiza Maia and Poli Mara Spritzer

Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age. The worldwide prevalence of PCOS ranges from 9 to 19.9%, depending on population characteristics and diagnostic criteria ( 1 , 2 , 3

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Stavroula A Paschou, Eleni Palioura, Dimitrios Ioannidis, Panagiotis Anagnostis, Argyro Panagiotakou, Vasiliki Loi, Georgios Karageorgos, Dimitrios G Goulis and Andromachi Vryonidou

Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism ( 1 ). It is often accompanied by insulin resistance ( 2 ) and abnormal lipid profile ( 3 , 4 ). Several studies have shown that

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Mojca Jensterle, Nika Aleksandra Kravos, Simona Ferjan, Katja Goricar, Vita Dolzan and Andrej Janez

Introduction Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) brings significant heterogeneity of cardio-metabolic risk at the time of the confirmed diagnosis ( 1 ). Obesity, menstrual irregularity and hyperandrogenism are recognized as the most important

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Signe Frøssing, Malin Nylander, Caroline Kistorp, Sven O Skouby and Jens Faber

Introduction Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are challenged with a metabolic aspect of the syndrome as they have increased prevalence of overweight with central obesity and insulin resistance. They present with an accumulation of

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Dorte Glintborg, Magda Lambaa Altinok, Pernille Ravn, Kurt Bjerregaard Stage, Kurt Højlund and Marianne Andersen

Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder characterized by insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism ( 1 ). Central obesity is closely associated with insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation ( 2 ) and

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Raymond J Rodgers, Jodie C Avery, Vivienne M Moore, Michael J Davies, Ricardo Azziz, Elisabet Stener-Victorin, Lisa J Moran, Sarah A Robertson, Nigel K Stepto, Robert J Norman and Helena J Teede

Introduction Following the recent release of international guidelines for management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) ( 1 ) endorsed by 38 international organisations in 71 countries, the research, clinical and consumer PCOS communities

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Agnieszka Adamska, Aleksandra Maria Polak, Anna Krentowska, Agnieszka Łebkowska, Justyna Hryniewicka, Monika Leśniewska and Irina Kowalska

Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is known as the most common endocrinological disorder and affects up to 20% of premenopausal women ( 1 ). PCOS is characterized by clinical and/or biochemical hyperandrogenism, ovulatory

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Katica Bajuk Studen and Marija Pfeifer

Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder in women of reproductive age, with a prevalence 5–16% under different diagnostic criteria and across several ethnic groups, with exact pathogenesis still unclear ( 1 , 2 , 3

Open access

Gunjan Garg, Garima Kachhawa, Rekha Ramot, Rajesh Khadgawat, Nikhil Tandon, V Sreenivas, Alka Kriplani and N Gupta

(OH)D level further inhibit the application of vitamin D intervention trials. Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is now recognized as one of the most common endocrinopathies in women of reproductive age with a prevalence of 4–10% (9) . Women with PCOS