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Janko Sattler, Jinwen Tu, Shihani Stoner, Jingbao Li, Frank Buttgereit, Markus J Seibel, Hong Zhou, and Mark S Cooper

Background Acute inflammation is typically associated with an activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which results in an increase in the level of glucocorticoids within the circulation ( 1 ). In situations where this

Open access

Britt J van Keulen, Michelle Romijn, Bibian van der Voorn, Marita de Waard, Michaela F Hartmann, Johannes B van Goudoever, Stefan A Wudy, Joost Rotteveel, and Martijn J J Finken

) handicaps and had lower scores on tests of neurodevelopment than their female counterparts ( 5 , 6 ). Integrity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis is crucial during critical illnesses. Among preterm infants, the HPA axis seems to be

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I Azzam, S Gilad, R Limor, N Stern, and Y Greenman

, prolactin and cortisol ( 15 , 16 , 17 ). The stimulation of the HPA axis by ghrelin is exerted predominantly at the hypothalamic level ( 18 ) through vasopressin stimulation ( 19 ) and indirect activation of CRH neurons ( 20 , 21 ). Direct effects of

Open access

Filippo Ceccato, Elisa Selmin, Giorgia Antonelli, Mattia Barbot, Andrea Daniele, Marco Boscaro, Mario Plebani, and Carla Scaroni

only confirm central AI in patients with very low morning basal serum F levels (≤83 nmol/L, 3 µg/dL), whereas only high serum F levels (≥415 nmol/L) can confirm a normal hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis ( 2 ). A confirmatory dynamic test is

Open access

Gavin P Vinson and Caroline H Brennan

also in protection against it. The hypophyseal–pituitary–adrenal axis in the brain and addiction In relation to addiction, far more attention has been paid to hypophyseal–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) components in the brain than to the systemic (i.e. blood

Open access

Lisa Arnetz, Neda Rajamand Ekberg, Kerstin Brismar, and Michael Alvarsson

–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, studies have shown discrepant results, reporting both increased and decreased activation (2) . Cortisol has effects opposite to those of insulin on glucose metabolism, decreasing glucose uptake and increasing gluconeogenesis (1, 2, 3

Open access

Eva Novoa, Marcel Gärtner, and Christoph Henzen

route of administration, the varied systemic side effects of oral or intravenous glucocorticoids should be minimized, in particular the suppression of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis or the inhibition of osteoblast function. Even after

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Peter Ergang, Anna Mikulecká, Martin Vodicˇka, Karla Vagnerová, Ivan Mikšík, and Jirˇí Pácha

Introduction Stress is a ubiquitous condition that affects both people and animals. It initiates a series of events, culminating in the activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic nervous system (SNS), including

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Masatada Watanabe, Shuji Ohno, and Hiroshi Wachi

healthy subjects ( 18 ). An increase in salivary cortisol concentration reflects the response of the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA) to stress, whereas an increase in plasma catecholamine concentration reflects the response of the (hypothalamus

Open access

Carolina Inda, Natalia G Armando, Paula A dos Santos Claro, and Susana Silberstein

are essential to the stress response driving both basal and stress-induced hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA) activation. Besides the hypothalamus, CRH is widely distributed in extrahypothalamic circuits of the brain where it functions as a