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Elena Valassi, Iacopo Chiodini, Richard A Feelders, Cornelie D Andela, Margueritta Abou-Hanna, Sarah Idres, and Antoine Tabarin

Introduction Cushing’s syndrome (CS) is a morbid endocrine condition due to prolonged exposure to high circulating cortisol levels ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). Hypercortisolism may cause irreversible physical and psychological changes in several tissues

Open access

Carla Scaroni, Nora M Albiger, Serena Palmieri, Davide Iacuaniello, Chiara Graziadio, Luca Damiani, Marialuisa Zilio, Antonio Stigliano, Annamaria Colao, Rosario Pivonello, and the Altogether to Beat Cushing’s Syndrome (ABC) study group

( 2 ). Under such conditions, there may be some clinical signs of hypercortisolism, which may be temporary or more persistent, giving rise to what is called pseudo-Cushing’s syndrome (PCS). The differential diagnosis of PCS and Cushing’s syndrome (CS

Open access

Boni Xiang, Ran Tao, Xinhua Liu, Xiaoming Zhu, Min He, Zengyi Ma, Yehong Yang, Zhaoyun Zhang, Yiming Li, Zhenwei Yao, Yongfei Wang, and Hongying Ye

Introduction Cushing’s syndrome (CS) comprises diverse manifestations resulting from chronic exposure to excess glucocorticoids. The incidence is 0.2–5.0 per million people per year. Approximately 80% of endogenous CS is adrenocorticotrophin

Open access

Ramjan Sanas Mohamed, Biyaser Abuelgasim, Sally Barker, Hemanth Prabhudev, Niamh M Martin, Karim Meeran, Emma L Williams, Sarah Darch, Whitlock Matthew, Tricia Tan, and Florian Wernig

Introduction Cushing’s syndrome (CS) is caused by prolonged and inappropriate exposure of tissues to glucocorticoids ( 1 ). Endogenous CS often poses considerable diagnostic challenges. Most guidelines recommend two different tests to screen

Open access

M S Elston, V B Crawford, M Swarbrick, M S Dray, M Head, and J V Conaglen

* Died shortly after first dose. AdenoCa, prostate adenocarcinoma; CS, Cushing’s syndrome; dx, diagnosis; hx, history; MR, mineralocorticoid. Of the reported cases of CS associated with SCPC most are due to ectopic ACTH production ( 24

Open access

Jingya Zhou, Meng Zhang, Lin Lu, Xiaopeng Guo, Lu Gao, Weigang Yan, Haiyu Pang, Yi Wang, and Bing Xing

Introduction Endogenous Cushing’s syndrome (CS) comprises signs and symptoms caused by pathological hypercortisolism, which seriously affects the metabolic and endocrine systems. Endogenous CS is divided between adrenocorticotropic hormone

Open access

Soraya Puglisi, Paola Perotti, Mattia Barbot, Paolo Cosio, Carla Scaroni, Antonio Stigliano, Pina Lardo, Valentina Morelli, Elisa Polledri, Iacopo Chiodini, Giuseppe Reimondo, Anna Pia, and Massimo Terzolo

Introduction Cushing’s syndrome (CS) is a condition of endogenous hypercortisolism caused by different pathological entities that is classified in two variants: (i) ACTH-dependent CS, due to a corticotroph pituitary adenoma or an ectopic tumor

Open access

Benedetta Zampetti, Erika Grossrubatscher, Paolo Dalino Ciaramella, Edoardo Boccardi, and Paola Loli

ACTH-dependent hypercortisolism is highly suggestive of pituitary disease, this is not true for smaller lesions that still might be incidentaloma ( 16 , 17 ). The Consensus Statement on Diagnosis and Complications of Cushing’s Syndrome suggests 6mm as

Open access

Kush Dev Singh Jarial, Anil Bhansali, Vivek Gupta, Paramjeet Singh, Kanchan K Mukherjee, Akhilesh Sharma, Rakesh K Vashishtha, Suja P Sukumar, Naresh Sachdeva, and Rama Walia

Introduction The differential diagnosis of ACTH-dependent Cushing’s syndrome (CS) as pituitary or ectopic source of ACTH production is often challenging for the physicians as none of the biochemical tests or imaging modalities have 100

Open access

Hanna F Nowotny, Jillian Bryce, Salma R Ali, Roberta Giordano, Federico Baronio, Irina Chifu, Lea Tschaidse, Martine Cools, Erica LT van den Akker, Henrik Falhammar, Natasha M Appelman-Dijkstra, Luca Persani, Guglielmo Beccuti, Ian L Ross, Simona Grozinsky-Glasberg, Alberto M Pereira, Eystein S Husebye, Stefanie Hahner, S Faisal Ahmed, and Nicole Reisch

AI and long-term glucocorticoid substitution therapy or glucocorticoid excess in Cushing’s syndrome (CS), are regularly prone to infections, especially those of the upper airways and gastrointestinal tract, due to impaired immune cell function ( 17