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Lia Ferreira, João Silva, Susana Garrido, Carlos Bello, Diana Oliveira, Hélder Simões, Isabel Paiva, Joana Guimarães, Marta Ferreira, Teresa Pereira, Rita Bettencourt-Silva, Ana Filipa Martins, Tiago Silva, Vera Fernandes, Maria Lopes Pereira, and Adrenal Tumors Study Group of the Portuguese Society of Endocrinology

Introduction Addison disease (AD) or primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) is a life-threatening disease that results from bilateral destruction or dysfunction of the adrenal cortex ( 1 ). PAI is a rare disease with a reported prevalence of

Open access

Gavin P Vinson and Caroline H Brennan

Introduction The purpose of this review is to demonstrate the critical role of the adrenal cortex in addiction and additionally to propose that sex differences in adrenocortical function may contribute to sex differences in addiction. Where it is

Open access

Nilesh Lomte, Tushar Bandgar, Shruti Khare, Swati Jadhav, Anurag Lila, Manjunath Goroshi, Rajeev Kasaliwal, Kranti Khadilkar, and Nalini S Shah

Introduction With increasing use of high-resolution imaging, incidentally found adrenal masses, mostly unilateral, are a common clinical problem. The vast majority of these unilateral masses are benign non-functioning adrenal adenomas ( 1

Open access

Qiuli Liu, Lin-ang Wang, Jian Su, Dali Tong, Weihua Lan, Luofu Wang, Gaolei Liu, Jun Zhang, Victor Wei Zhang, Dianzheng Zhang, Rongrong Chen, Qingyi Zhu, and Jun Jiang

Introduction Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is one of the most severe disorders of metabolism with an overall incidence of approximately 1:15,000 worldwide ( 1 ). CAH encompasses a group of enzymatic deficiencies of cortisol synthesis

Open access

Manon Engels, Paul N Span, Rod T Mitchell, Joop J T M Heuvel, Monica A Marijnissen-van Zanten, Antonius E van Herwaarden, Christina A Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Egbert Oosterwijk, Nike M Stikkelbroeck, Lee B Smith, Fred C G J Sweep, and Hedi L Claahsen-van der Grinten

Introduction Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a genetic disorder in which adrenocortical steroid synthesis is impaired due to a deficiency in particular steroidogenic enzymes, most often steroid 21-hydroxylase (CYP21A2). A wide range of

Open access

Tatiana V Novoselova, Peter J King, Leonardo Guasti, Louise A Metherell, Adrian J L Clark, and Li F Chan

Hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal axis The hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis dictates the production of glucocorticoids secreted from the adrenal gland. Parvocellular neurosecretory neurons within the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus

Open access

Kathrin Zopf, Kathrin R Frey, Tina Kienitz, Manfred Ventz, Britta Bauer, and Marcus Quinkler

GR functionality. In patients with bronchial asthma, the Bcl I polymorphism seems to at least partially explain the development of a severe form of asthma associated with resistance to glucocorticoids ( 10 ). Patients with adrenal insufficiency

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Gamze Akkuş, Isa Burak Güney, Fesih Ok, Mehtap Evran, Volkan Izol, Şeyda Erdoğan, Yıldırım Bayazıt, Murat Sert, and Tamer Tetiker

Introduction Since the early 1980s, the prevalence of adrenal masses have been increasing due to the frequent use of radiological imaging such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computerized tomography (CT) in clinical practice. The

Open access

Sirazum Choudhury, Tricia Tan, Katharine Lazarus, and Karim Meeran

-deoxycorticosterone ( 2 ), and cortisone acetate from 1948, the prognosis of Addison’s disease improved vastly. Patients were no longer dying from adrenal failure, and generous doses of glucocorticoids were given to guard against adrenal crises. Whilst the era of

Open access

M von Wolff, C T Nakas, M Tobler, T M Merz, M P Hilty, J D Veldhuis, A R Huber, and J Pichler Hefti

altitudes up to 7000 m under standardized conditions and to investigate the changes in the adrenal, thyroid and gonadal hypothalamus–pituitary end-organ axes. Materials and methods Setting This was a prospective observational cohort study