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Giovanni Tulipano

multiple signals interacting with their own specific receptors expressed by a given pituitary cell type occurs at the level of the intracellular signal transduction pathways. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, official symbol PRKA) is expressed in all

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Clarissa Souza Barthem, Camila Lüdke Rossetti, Denise P Carvalho and Wagner Seixas da-Silva

food ingestion. Metformin treatment also decreased hepatic and serum triglyceride levels, probably due to an increase of liver phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK) and inactivated acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) levels. Taken together, our

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Yusaku Mori, Hiroyuki Shimizu, Hideki Kushima, Tomomi Saito, Munenori Hiromura, Michishige Terasaki, Masakazu Koshibu, Hirokazu Ohtaki and Tsutomu Hirano

Vascular Biology 1997 17 2238 – 2244 . ( ) 10.1161/01.ATV.17.10.2238 9351395 36 Carling D Sanders MJ Woods A . The regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase by upstream kinases . International Journal of

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Carolina Inda, Natalia G Armando, Paula A dos Santos Claro and Susana Silberstein

Gβγ subunits regulate the activity of different downstream effector proteins. The activated GPCRs are substrate of kinase phosphorylation and binding to β-arrestins, events that inhibit interaction with G proteins and promote endocytosis of receptors

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Chao Xu, Xiang-Fei Li, Hong-Yan Tian, Hua-Juan Shi, Ding-Dong Zhang, Kenneth Prudence Abasubong and Wen-Bin Liu

have suggested that the low utilization of carbohydrates by fish might be due to the poor postprandial supervision of certain energy sensors that are directly involved in glucose metabolism ( 1 , 10 , 14 ). Among them, AMP-activated protein kinase

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Irasema Mendieta, Rosa Elvira Nuñez-Anita, Gilberto Pérez-Sánchez, Lenin Pavón, Alfredo Rodríguez-Cruz, Guadalupe García-Alcocer and Laura Cristina Berumen

Biology 2007 36 661 – 668 . ( ) 10.1165/rcmb.2006-0410OC 17255555 34 Cox ME Deeble PD Bissonette EA Parsons SJ . Activated 3′,5′-cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase is sufficient to induce neuroendocrine

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Erika Peverelli, Federica Ermetici, Sabrina Corbetta, Ettore Gozzini, Laura Avagliano, Marco A Zappa, Gaetano Bulfamante, Paolo Beck-Peccoz, Anna Spada and Giovanna Mantovani

suggested (8) , evidence indicates that the activation of CREB is mainly modulated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) (9) . PKA is a tetrameric enzyme composed of two catalytic and two regulatory subunits. There are four regulatory subunits (R1A, R1B

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Selina Mäkinen, Yen H Nguyen, Paulina Skrobuk and Heikki A Koistinen

of JNK isoform of 54 kDa in muscle cells. Co-incubation with palmitate and oleate prevented JNK activation ( Fig. 2B ). AMPK Phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase was increased in myotubes pretreated with palmitate and oleate for 12

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Flavia Letícia Martins Peçanha, Reinaldo Sousa dos Santos and Wagner Seixas da-Silva

regulates distribution of thyroid hormone receptors by activating AMP-activated protein kinase in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and induces uncoupling protein-1 expression . Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 2014 393 247 – 254 . ( doi:10.1007/s11010

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M L M Barreto-Chaves, N Senger, M R Fevereiro, A C Parletta and A P C Takano

cell hypertrophy. Moreover, diverse intracellular signaling pathways are rapidly activated by T3 and mediate cardiomyocyte growth, as occurs in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K