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Julia Kubiak, Per Medbøe Thorsby, Elena Kamycheva and Rolf Jorde

Introduction It is widely acknowledged that the vitamin D receptor (VDR), and the enzymes necessary for the hydroxylation of vitamin D to 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and to the active form 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH) 2 D) are located

Open access

Christian Trummer, Stefan Pilz, Verena Schwetz, Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch and Elisabeth Lerchbaum

Introduction Considering the high prevalence of an insufficient vitamin D status in many populations as well as the potential link between low vitamin D status and adverse health outcomes ( 1 ), vitamin D deficiency is classified as an

Open access

S Westra, Y H M Krul-Poel, H J van Wijland, M M ter Wee, F Stam, P Lips, F Pouwer and S Simsek

-specific complications ( 2 , 3 ). Moreover, people with depressive symptoms and diabetes had an almost 50% increased all-cause mortality rate, probably due to non-optimal self-care ( 2 ). Low vitamin D status is common in people with type 2 DM ( 7 ), and previous

Open access

Marc Blondon, Emmanuel Biver, Olivia Braillard, Marc Righini, Pierre Fontana and Alessandro Casini

disability-adjusted life-years in both high- and low-income countries. With this massive burden, prevention efforts may yield important positive effects on the population’s health. In observational studies, vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased

Open access

Stefan Pilz, Armin Zittermann, Christian Trummer, Verena Theiler-Schwetz, Elisabeth Lerchbaum, Martin H Keppel, Martin R Grübler, Winfried März and Marlene Pandis

Introduction Vitamin D is critical for bone and mineral metabolism and is effective in the prevention and treatment of rickets and osteomalacia ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ). Given that vitamin D receptors (VDRs) are expressed in almost every

Open access

J A Tamblyn, C Jenkinson, D P Larner, M Hewison and M D Kilby

major site for vitamin D metabolism, expressing the 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1α-hydroxylase (1α-hydroxylase) enzyme that synthesises 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH) 2 D3) from precursor 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), as well as 25-hydroxyvitamin D-24

Open access

K Amrein, A Papinutti, E Mathew, G Vila and D Parekh

A short history of vitamin D in critical care Only 10 years ago, a potential link between acute illness and vitamin D, which is well known for its role in calcium and bone homeostasis, was regarded as quite absurd – how could this hormone be

Open access

Zhen-yu Song, Qiuming Yao, Zhiyuan Zhuo, Zhe Ma and Gang Chen

useful treatment measures are urgently needed by people to improve the survival rate of prostate cancer patients. The major circulating form of vitamin D in human body is 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), which comes from vitamin D via 25-hydroxylation

Open access

Eliana Piantanida, Daniela Gallo, Giovanni Veronesi, Eugenia Dozio, Eugenia Trotti, Adriana Lai, Silvia Ippolito, Jessica Sabatino, Maria Laura Tanda, Antonio Toniolo, Marco Ferrario and Luigi Bartalena

Introduction Dermal synthesis (90%) and intestinal absorption (10%) are the two main sources of vitamin D ( 1 , 2 ). In the classical pathway, serum vitamin D is metabolized to calcidiol (25(OH)D) in the liver and converted to its active form

Open access

Changwei Liu, Jingwen Wang, Yuanyuan Wan, Xiaona Xia, Jian Pan, Wei Gu and Mei Li

cells in the pancreas. The compelling evidence indicates that adaptive autoimmunity to the pancreatic beta cell is initially targeted against islet ( 4 ). The major forms of vitamin D are vitamin D3, vitamin D2 and the active form of 1,25-(OH) 2D3. The