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Julia Kubiak, Per Medbøe Thorsby, Elena Kamycheva, and Rolf Jorde

Introduction It is widely acknowledged that the vitamin D receptor (VDR), and the enzymes necessary for the hydroxylation of vitamin D to 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and to the active form 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH) 2 D) are located

Open access

Christian Trummer, Stefan Pilz, Verena Schwetz, Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch, and Elisabeth Lerchbaum

Introduction Considering the high prevalence of an insufficient vitamin D status in many populations as well as the potential link between low vitamin D status and adverse health outcomes ( 1 ), vitamin D deficiency is classified as an

Open access

S Westra, Y H M Krul-Poel, H J van Wijland, M M ter Wee, F Stam, P Lips, F Pouwer, and S Simsek

-specific complications ( 2 , 3 ). Moreover, people with depressive symptoms and diabetes had an almost 50% increased all-cause mortality rate, probably due to non-optimal self-care ( 2 ). Low vitamin D status is common in people with type 2 DM ( 7 ), and previous

Open access

Barbara J Boucher

Associations of vitamin D status with health outcomes Cross-sectionally, vitamin D cures/prevents rickets but populations remain deficient ( 1 , 2 ) as assessed by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration (25(OH)D), which is inversely

Open access

Marc Blondon, Emmanuel Biver, Olivia Braillard, Marc Righini, Pierre Fontana, and Alessandro Casini

disability-adjusted life-years in both high- and low-income countries. With this massive burden, prevention efforts may yield important positive effects on the population’s health. In observational studies, vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased

Open access

J A Tamblyn, C Jenkinson, D P Larner, M Hewison, and M D Kilby

major site for vitamin D metabolism, expressing the 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1α-hydroxylase (1α-hydroxylase) enzyme that synthesises 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH) 2 D3) from precursor 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), as well as 25-hydroxyvitamin D-24

Open access

Stefan Pilz, Armin Zittermann, Christian Trummer, Verena Theiler-Schwetz, Elisabeth Lerchbaum, Martin H Keppel, Martin R Grübler, Winfried März, and Marlene Pandis

Introduction Vitamin D is critical for bone and mineral metabolism and is effective in the prevention and treatment of rickets and osteomalacia ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ). Given that vitamin D receptors (VDRs) are expressed in almost every

Open access

K Amrein, A Papinutti, E Mathew, G Vila, and D Parekh

A short history of vitamin D in critical care Only 10 years ago, a potential link between acute illness and vitamin D, which is well known for its role in calcium and bone homeostasis, was regarded as quite absurd – how could this hormone be

Open access

Rolf Jorde and Guri Grimnes

Introduction Vitamin D is essential for intestinal calcium absorption and skeletal health. Vitamin D deficiency in children may lead to rickets, which can be prevented and/or treated by vitamin D supplementation ( 1 ). In addition to its

Open access

Natércia Neves Marques de Queiroz, Franciane Trindade Cunha de Melo, Fabrício de Souza Resende, Luísa Corrêa Janaú, Norberto Jorge Kzan de Souza Neto, Manuela Nascimento de Lemos, Ana Carolina Lobato Virgolino, Maria Clara Neres Iunes de Oliveira, Angélica Leite de Alcântara, Lorena Vilhena de Moraes, Tiago Franco David, Wanderson Maia da Silva, Scarlatt Souza Reis, Márcia Costa dos Santos, Ana Carolina Contente Braga de Souza, Pedro Paulo Freire Piani, Neyla Arroyo Lara Mourão, Karem Mileo Felício, João Felício Abrahão Neto, and João Soares Felício

Introduction The Institute of Medicine (IOM) defines normality of vitamin D as serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels above 20 ng/mL, based on the dietary intake needed to meet the requirements for at least 97.5% of the population ( 1