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Ali Abbasi

Introduction Over the past decade, interest in studying biological markers (biomarkers) for type 2 diabetes (T2D) has increased intensely. This happened because multiple pathobiological processes may contribute to the disease progression, which

Open access

Qiu-ming Yao, Bin Wang, Xiao-fei An, Jin-an Zhang, and Liumei Ding

Introduction Diabetes is a public health issue, and there are over 0.4 billion people suffering from diabetes over the world, and its prevalence is still increasing remarkably every year ( 1 ). Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the major type

Open access

Fang Lv, Xiaoling Cai, Chu Lin, Tianpei Hong, Xiaomei Zhang, Zhufeng Wang, Huifang Xing, Guizhi Zong, Juming Lu, Xiaohui Guo, Jing Wu, Leili Gao, Xianghai Zhou, Xueyao Han, and Linong Ji

(Obesity and overweight. https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/obesity-and-overweight. 1 April 2020). It was also suggested that the epidemic of obesity and overweight ( 1 ) was associated with the increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) ( 2

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Xi Zhang, Xiurong Shen, Wan Zhou, Mengyun Xu, Yan Xing, Jianping Weng, Shandong Ye, Suowen Xu, Zhi Zhang, and Wei Wang

Introduction Type 2 diabetes (T2D), the most common form of diabetes, has fallen into the leading causes of disability and death worldwide. The harms of T2D arise from its complications such as neuropathy, nephropathy, retinopathy, and

Open access

Hong Wang, Jie Cao, Jian-bin Su, Xue-qin Wang, Dong-mei Zhang, and Xiao-hua Wang

Introduction Individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) suffer from an increased risk of thrombotic complications such as myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and venous thromboembolism (VTE) ( 1 ). Hyperglycemia, increased oxidative stress, and

Open access

Emanuela Zaharieva, Zdravko Kamenov, Tsvetelina Velikova, Adelina Tsakova, Yosif El-Darawish, and Haruki Okamura

helper immune response ( 3 , 4 ). Apart from its place in immune defense against infective pathogens, IL-18 participates in the pathogenesis of atopic, autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases ( 3 , 4 ). Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) have been

Open access

Haojie Zhang, Yuke Cui, Ruihua Dong, Wen Zhang, Shihan Chen, Heng Wan, Chi Chen, Yi Chen, Yuying Wang, Chunfang Zhu, Bo Chen, Ningjian Wang, and Yingli Lu

Introduction Type 2 diabetes mellitus is becoming a major public health concern, especially in China. Its estimated prevalence is up to 11%, and approximately 109.6 million adults in China have diabetes ( 1 ). Research indicates that

Open access

Xiangyu Gao, Wanwan Sun, Yi Wang, Yawen Zhang, Rumei Li, Jinya Huang, and Yehong Yang

). Historically, based on positivity of islet autoantibodies, diabetes mellitus had been classified into two clinical types: type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) ( 3 , 4 ). The progressive destruction of islet β cell mass caused by islet autoimmunity

Open access

Dmitry M Davydov and Malik K Nurbekov

Introduction Despite the known limitations of diagnostic criteria and early risk for type 2 diabetes derived from fasting (FPG) and/or 2-h plasma glucose levels, they are still widely accepted. Glycated hemoglobin A1 or the percentage of total

Open access

Julia Otten, Andreas Stomby, Maria Waling, Elin Chorell, Mats Ryberg, Michael Svensson, Jens Juul Holst, and Tommy Olsson

Introduction Blood glucose levels are tightly regulated by insulin and glucagon. In type 2 diabetes, the ability of insulin to suppress endogenous glucose production is impaired, and increased fasting and postprandial glucagon levels stimulate