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Ali Abbasi

Introduction Over the past decade, interest in studying biological markers (biomarkers) for type 2 diabetes (T2D) has increased intensely. This happened because multiple pathobiological processes may contribute to the disease progression, which

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Qiu-ming Yao, Bin Wang, Xiao-fei An, Jin-an Zhang and Liumei Ding

Introduction Diabetes is a public health issue, and there are over 0.4 billion people suffering from diabetes over the world, and its prevalence is still increasing remarkably every year ( 1 ). Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the major type

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Emanuela Zaharieva, Zdravko Kamenov, Tsvetelina Velikova, Adelina Tsakova, Yosif El-Darawish and Haruki Okamura

helper immune response ( 3 , 4 ). Apart from its place in immune defense against infective pathogens, IL-18 participates in the pathogenesis of atopic, autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases ( 3 , 4 ). Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) have been

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Dmitry M Davydov and Malik K Nurbekov

Introduction Despite the known limitations of diagnostic criteria and early risk for type 2 diabetes derived from fasting (FPG) and/or 2-h plasma glucose levels, they are still widely accepted. Glycated hemoglobin A1 or the percentage of total

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David P Sonne, Asger Lund, Jens Faber, Jens J Holst, Tina Vilsbøll and Filip K Knop

-diabetic patients who had undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, and recent reports have demonstrated similar associations of bile acids with TSH in type 2 diabetes (6, 7, 8) . In contrast, Brufau et al . (9) could not demonstrate any effect of bile acids

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Jothydev Kesavadev, Pradeep Babu Sadasivan Pillai, Arun Shankar, Gopika Krishnan and Sunitha Jothydev

glucose homoeostasis without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia and weight gain ( 4 ). Addition of sitagliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in patients poorly controlled on insulin with or without metformin, has been

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Alessandra Gambineri and Carla Pelusi

Role of sex and gender on the development of type 2 diabetes There is increasing evidence that sex and gender differences influence the epidemiology, pathophysiology, treatment and outcomes of many diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2DM

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Richard H Tuligenga

Introduction Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus show faster cognitive decline compared with healthy subjects (1) . Numerous studies in patients with type 2 diabetes have dealt with the association between the level of glycaemic control and the

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Ram P Narayanan, Bo Fu, Adrian H Heald, Kirk W Siddals, Robert L Oliver, Julie E Hudson, Antony Payton, Simon G Anderson, Anne White, William E R Ollier and J Martin Gibson

the renal glomerulus (3) . In this study, we used ‘real-world’ data to examine the hypothesis that concentrations of IGF2 and IGFBP2 at baseline were associated with longitudinal trends in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in type 2 diabetes. Subjects

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Ann-Kristin Picke, Graeme Campbell, Nicola Napoli, Lorenz C Hofbauer and Martina Rauner

complications, the increased risk for fragility fractures has recently been recognized as an important complication of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, T2DM) ( 3 , 4 , 5 ). While type 1 diabetics have low bone mineral density and a six- to