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S Westra, Y H M Krul-Poel, H J van Wijland, M M ter Wee, F Stam, P Lips, F Pouwer and S Simsek

increased risk for microvascular and macrovascular complications, including neuropathy, nephropathy, retinopathy, peripheral artery disease and cardiovascular disease ( 1 ). Furthermore, in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM), relatively high

Open access

Lars Peter Sørensen, Tina Parkner, Esben Søndergaard, Bo Martin Bibby, Holger Jon Møller and Søren Nielsen

Introduction Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the adverse metabolic consequences of obesity vary between individuals (1) . The mechanisms underlying obesity

Open access

Ann-Kristin Picke, Graeme Campbell, Nicola Napoli, Lorenz C Hofbauer and Martina Rauner

complications, the increased risk for fragility fractures has recently been recognized as an important complication of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, T2DM) ( 3 , 4 , 5 ). While type 1 diabetics have low bone mineral density and a six- to

Open access

Metin Guclu, Sinem Kiyici, Zulfiye Gul and Sinan Cavun

Introduction Excess weight and weight gain are significant problems in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus ( 1 ). Weight reduction is a critical part of type 2 diabetic patients’ management to obtain better glycemic control

Open access

Karim Gariani, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Gérard Waeber, Peter Vollenweider and François R Jornayvaz

Introduction Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) pathogenesis may involve the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA) ( 1 ). Common features observed in T2DM and metabolic syndrome, such as elevated fasting glucose, obesity, hyperlipidemia or

Open access

Sweta Budyal, Swati Sachin Jadhav, Rajeev Kasaliwal, Hiren Patt, Shruti Khare, Vyankatesh Shivane, Anurag R Lila, Tushar Bandgar and Nalini S Shah

with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity, osteoporosis, and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) (4, 5, 6, 7, 8) . As impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes are important metabolic manifestations of CS, several studies have attempted to examine the

Open access

Tingting Jia, Ya-nan Wang, Dongjiao Zhang and Xin Xu

osseointegration, which is critical for implanting, and increase the failure rate, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of them ( 1 , 2 ). The pathological changes of T2DM, such as microangiopathy, immunity decline and collagen degradation, can reduce the

Open access

E N Dudinskaya, O N Tkacheva, M V Shestakova, N V Brailova, I D Strazhesko, D U Akasheva, O Y Isaykina, N V Sharashkina, D A Kashtanova and S A Boytsov

It is known that glucose disturbances contribute to micro- and macrovascular complications and vascular aging. Telomere length is considered to be a cellular aging biomarker. It is important to determine the telomere length role in vascular structural and functional changes in patients with diabetes mellitus. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study in a high-risk population from Moscow, Russia. The study included 50 patients with diabetes and without clinical cardiovascular disease and 49 control group participants. Glucose metabolism assessment tests, measuring intima–media complex thickness and determining the presence of atherosclerotic plaques, pulse wave velocity measurement, and telomere length measurement were administered to all participants. Vascular changes were more dramatic in patients with diabetes than in the control group, and the telomeres were shorter in patients with diabetes. Significant differences were found in the vascular wall condition among diabetes patients, and there were no substantial differences in the arterial structure between patients with ‘long’ telomeres; however, there were statistically significant differences in the vascular wall condition between patients with ‘short’ telomeres. Vascular ageing signs were more prominent in patients with diabetes. However, despite diabetes, vascular changes in patients with long telomeres were very modest and were similar to the vascular walls in healthy individuals. Thus, long lymphocyte telomeres may have a protective effect on the vascular wall and may prevent vascular wall deterioration caused by glucose metabolism disorders.

Open access

Raymond J Rodgers, Jodie C Avery, Vivienne M Moore, Michael J Davies, Ricardo Azziz, Elisabet Stener-Victorin, Lisa J Moran, Sarah A Robertson, Nigel K Stepto, Robert J Norman and Helena J Teede

Objective

Many complex diseases exhibit co-morbidities often requiring management by more than one health specialist. We examined cross-speciality issues that ultimately affect the health and wellbeing of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS was originally described as a reproductive condition but is now recognised to also be a metabolic and psychological condition affecting 8–13% of women of reproductive age. With a four-fold increased risk of type 2 diabetes (DM2), the Population Attributable Risk of DM2 that could be avoided if PCOS were eliminated is a substantial 19–28% of women of reproductive age. To determine the extent to which PCOS is an important consideration in diabetes development, we examined publications, funding, guidelines and predictors of risk of developing DM2.

Results

We found that the topic of PCOS appeared in specialist diabetes journals at only 10% the rate seen in endocrinology journals – about 1 in 500 articles. We found research funding to be substantially less than for diabetes and found that diabetes guidelines and predictive tools for DM2 risk mostly ignore PCOS. This is surprising since insulin resistance in women with PCOS has a different aetiology and additionally women with PCOS are at increased risk of becoming overweight or obese – high risk factors for DM2.

Conclusions

We consider the causes of these concerning anomalies and discuss current activities to address the co-morbidities of PCOS, including the recent development of international guidelines, an international PCOS awareness program and potentially changing the name of PCOS to better reflect its metabolic consequences.

Open access

Julia Modesto Vicente, Junia Carolina Santos-Silva, Caio Jordão Teixeira, Dailson Nogueira de Souza, Jean Franciesco Vettorazzi, Fabiola Sales Furtuoso, Isabel Gouveia Adabo, Fabio Takeo Sato, Marco Aurélio Ramirez Vinolo, Everardo Magalhães Carneiro, Silvana Bordin and Gabriel Forato Anhê

). Adolescents exposed to shorter breastfeeding periods are also more prone to develop metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) ( 3 , 4 , 5 ). More recently, epidemiological studies have also detailed a wide range of benefits that breastfeeding