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Stavroula A Paschou, Nektaria Papadopoulou-Marketou, George P Chrousos and Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein

Introduction Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) represents only around 10% of the diabetes cases worldwide, but occurs with increasing incidence much earlier in life. T1DM results from the autoimmune destruction of β cells of the endocrine

Open access

Lili Liu, Zhuo Shao, Ying Xia, Jiabi Qin, Yang Xiao, Zhiguang Zhou and Zubing Mei

Introduction Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), which is caused by the selective destruction of the insulin-producing β cells located in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans, is one of the most common and debilitating autoimmune diseases ( 1

Open access

Louise Færch, Anders Juul, Ulrik Pedersen-Bjergaard and Birger Thorsteinsson

Introduction GH is part of the second-line counter-regulatory response to hypoglycemia and acts by promoting gluconeogenesis. In long-standing type 1 diabetes with counter-regulatory failure in terms of diminished glucagon and adrenaline responses

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Eva Olga Melin, Jonatan Dereke, Maria Thunander and Magnus Hillman

Introduction Depression is associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D), Alzheimer’s disease, increased coronary heart disease and both coronary and all-cause mortality ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). T1D has a serious impact on mental health, indicated by the more

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Eva O Melin, Jonatan Dereke, Maria Thunander and Magnus Hillman

patients with type 1 diabetes in Sweden . Diabetes Therapy 2018 9 87 – 99 . ( https://doi.org/10.1007/s13300-017-0344-6 ) 10.1007/s13300-017-0344-6 6 Khan AA Rahmani AH Aldebasi YH. Diabetic retinopathy: recent updates on different biomarkers and

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Rasha Odeh, Abeer Alassaf, Lubna Gharaibeh, Sarah Ibrahim, Fareed Khdair Ahmad and Kamel Ajlouni

Introduction Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is an immune-mediated disease that is known to be associated with other autoimmune conditions, most commonly thyroiditis and celiac disease (CD). While the prevalence of CD in the general population

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Changwei Liu, Jingwen Wang, Yuanyuan Wan, Xiaona Xia, Jian Pan, Wei Gu and Mei Li

Background Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease occurring in the pancreatic islets. The disease can affect people of any age, but onset usually occurs in children or young adults, which accounts for 90% of diabetes in

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Ozlem Atan Sahin, Damla Goksen, Aysel Ozpinar, Muhittin Serdar and Huseyin Onay

Introduction Type 1 diabetes (DM1) is a complex disease characterized by the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β cells. Vitamin D is an immune regulatory hormone that exerts its effects through highly polymorphic VDR that belongs to

Open access

P R van Dijk, S J J Logtenberg, K H Groenier, N Kleefstra, H J G Bilo and H J Arnqvist

the hepatic sensitivity of GH stimulation and subsequently increases IGF1 production (8) . Furthermore, insulin increases IGF1 bioactivity by a down-regulation of IGFBP1 expression in the liver (5) . In type 1diabetes mellitus (T1DM), with

Open access

Taís S Assmann, Mariana Recamonde-Mendoza, Bianca M De Souza and Daisy Crispim

Introduction Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is characterized by autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta-cells by T lymphocytes and macrophages ( 1 ). The disease is usually diagnosed when over 80–90% of beta-cells have been destructed by