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Stavroula A Paschou, Nektaria Papadopoulou-Marketou, George P Chrousos and Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein

Introduction Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) represents only around 10% of the diabetes cases worldwide, but occurs with increasing incidence much earlier in life. T1DM results from the autoimmune destruction of β cells of the endocrine

Open access

W Liu, Y Wang, X Han, X Cai, Y Zhu, M Zhang, S Gong, J Li and L Ji

Introduction Chronic complications cause the largest proportion of deaths and increase in prevalence with the duration of the disease in long-standing type 1 diabetes (T1DM). ( 1 ) Indeed, the duration of diabetes and severity of hyperglycemia

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Lili Liu, Zhuo Shao, Ying Xia, Jiabi Qin, Yang Xiao, Zhiguang Zhou and Zubing Mei

Introduction Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), which is caused by the selective destruction of the insulin-producing β cells located in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans, is one of the most common and debilitating autoimmune diseases ( 1

Open access

Louise Færch, Anders Juul, Ulrik Pedersen-Bjergaard and Birger Thorsteinsson

Introduction GH is part of the second-line counter-regulatory response to hypoglycemia and acts by promoting gluconeogenesis. In long-standing type 1 diabetes with counter-regulatory failure in terms of diminished glucagon and adrenaline responses

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Eva Olga Melin, Jonatan Dereke, Maria Thunander and Magnus Hillman

Introduction Depression is associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D), Alzheimer’s disease, increased coronary heart disease and both coronary and all-cause mortality ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). T1D has a serious impact on mental health, indicated by the more

Open access

Eva Olga Melin, Magnus Hillman and Mona Landin-Olsson

Introduction Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease, characterised by insulin deficiency due to pancreatic β-cell loss leading to hyperglycaemia ( 1 ). T1D is associated with increased risk for myocardial infarction, heart failure and

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Eva O Melin, Jonatan Dereke, Maria Thunander and Magnus Hillman

Pollock RF. Achieving good glycemic control early after onset of diabetes: a cost-effectiveness analysis in patients with type 1 diabetes in Sweden . Diabetes Therapy 2018 9 87 – 99 . ( https://doi.org/10.1007/s13300-017-0344-6 ) 6 Khan AA

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Rasha Odeh, Abeer Alassaf, Lubna Gharaibeh, Sarah Ibrahim, Fareed Khdair Ahmad and Kamel Ajlouni

Introduction Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is an immune-mediated disease that is known to be associated with other autoimmune conditions, most commonly thyroiditis and celiac disease (CD). While the prevalence of CD in the general population

Open access

Changwei Liu, Jingwen Wang, Yuanyuan Wan, Xiaona Xia, Jian Pan, Wei Gu and Mei Li

Background Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease occurring in the pancreatic islets. The disease can affect people of any age, but onset usually occurs in children or young adults, which accounts for 90% of diabetes in

Open access

Ozlem Atan Sahin, Damla Goksen, Aysel Ozpinar, Muhittin Serdar and Huseyin Onay

Introduction Type 1 diabetes (DM1) is a complex disease characterized by the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β cells. Vitamin D is an immune regulatory hormone that exerts its effects through highly polymorphic VDR that belongs to