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Qiu-ming Yao Department of Endocrinology, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Bin Wang Department of Endocrinology, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Xiao-fei An Department of Endocrinology, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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Jin-an Zhang Department of Endocrinology, Shanghai University of Medicine & Health Sciences Affiliated Zhoupu Hospital, Shanghai, China

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Liumei Ding Department of Clinical Laboratory, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China

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T2DM are still necessary to copy with the epidemic of T2DM. There is evidence to indicate that endogenous sex hormones play a vital role in the pathogenesis of T2DM ( 4 ). Some studies proposed that testosterone was possibly linked with T2DM risk

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Jin Kyu Oh Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Gachon University, Incheon, Republic of Korea

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Young Jae Im Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea

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Kwanjin Park Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea

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Jae-Seung Paick Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea

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, albeit with no hypospadias, as indicated by normal morphology of the urethral meatus at the tip of the glans penis. Micropenis is commonly associated with testosterone deficiencies from 12 weeks of gestation, with normal placental human chorionic

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Mélanie Rouleau Division of Urology, Department of Surgery and Cancer Research Center, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) de Québec-Université Laval, Québec, Québec, Canada

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Francis Lemire Division of Urology, Department of Surgery and Cancer Research Center, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) de Québec-Université Laval, Québec, Québec, Canada

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Michel Déry Biochemistry Service, Medical Laboratory Department, CHU de Québec-Université Laval, Québec, Québec, Canada

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Benoît Thériault Division of Urology, Department of Surgery and Cancer Research Center, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) de Québec-Université Laval, Québec, Québec, Canada

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Gabriel Dubois Division of Urology, Department of Surgery and Cancer Research Center, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) de Québec-Université Laval, Québec, Québec, Canada

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Yves Fradet Division of Urology, Department of Surgery and Cancer Research Center, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) de Québec-Université Laval, Québec, Québec, Canada

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Paul Toren Division of Urology, Department of Surgery and Cancer Research Center, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) de Québec-Université Laval, Québec, Québec, Canada

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Chantal Guillemette Pharmacy Faculty, Université Laval and CHU de Québec-Université Laval, Québec, Québec, Canada

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Louis Lacombe Division of Urology, Department of Surgery and Cancer Research Center, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) de Québec-Université Laval, Québec, Québec, Canada

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Laurence Klotz Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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Fred Saad Centre Hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada

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Dominique Guérette Biochemistry Service, Medical Laboratory Department, CHU de Québec-Université Laval, Québec, Québec, Canada

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Frédéric Pouliot Division of Urology, Department of Surgery and Cancer Research Center, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) de Québec-Université Laval, Québec, Québec, Canada

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Introduction Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is used to treat recurrent and advanced PCa ( 1 , 2 ). ADT blocks the testicular production of androgens thus inhibiting PCa cell growth ( 3 ). Serum testosterone levels are a prognostic factor

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Claire L Wood Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
Translational and Clinical Research Institute, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

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Kieren G Hollingsworth Translational and Clinical Research Institute, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

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Edrina Bokaie Translational and Clinical Research Institute, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

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Eric Hughes Translational and Clinical Research Institute, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

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Robert Muni-Lofra Translational and Clinical Research Institute, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
John Walton Muscular Dystrophy Research Centre, Newcastle University and Newcastle Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

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Anna Mayhew Translational and Clinical Research Institute, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
John Walton Muscular Dystrophy Research Centre, Newcastle University and Newcastle Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

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Rod T Mitchell MRC Centre for Reproductive Health, The University of Edinburgh, Queens Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh, UK

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Michela Guglieri Translational and Clinical Research Institute, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
John Walton Muscular Dystrophy Research Centre, Newcastle University and Newcastle Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

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Joseph McElvaney Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

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Timothy D Cheetham Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
Translational and Clinical Research Institute, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

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Volker Straub Translational and Clinical Research Institute, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
John Walton Muscular Dystrophy Research Centre, Newcastle University and Newcastle Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

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, however, can result in many adverse effects including pubertal delay. Recent work at our centre has shown that incremental monthly testosterone injections can induce puberty in adolescents with DMD and delayed puberty ( 3 ). The 2-year testosterone regimen

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Lawrence D Hayes Active Ageing Research Group, Department of Medical and Sport Sciences, University of Cumbria, Lancaster, UK

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Peter Herbert School of Sport, Health and Outdoor Education, Trinity Saint David, University of Wales, Carmarthen, UK

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Nicholas F Sculthorpe Institute of Clinical Exercise and Health Science, University of the West of Scotland, Hamilton, UK

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Fergal M Grace Faculty of Health, Federation University, Victoria, Australia

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Introduction Testosterone is a sex steroid hormone with profound influence on various tissues ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). The precipitous decline in systemic testosterone with age is well described ( 4 ). Additionally, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG

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Christian Høst Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine and the Medical Research Laboratories, Clinical Institute, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus N, Denmark
Department of Pediatrics, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus N, Denmark

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Anders Bojesen Department of Clinical Genetics, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus N, Denmark

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Mogens Erlandsen Section for Biostatistics, Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus C, Denmark

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Kristian A Groth Department of Molecular Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus N, Denmark

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Kurt Kristensen Department of Pediatrics, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus N, Denmark

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Anne Grethe Jurik Department of Radiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus N, Denmark

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Niels H Birkebæk Department of Pediatrics, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus N, Denmark

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Claus H Gravholt Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine and the Medical Research Laboratories, Clinical Institute, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus N, Denmark
Department of Molecular Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus N, Denmark

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, with increased fasting insulin levels ( 8 ). At the same time cross-sectional studies have shown an inverse relationship between plasma testosterone and insulin resistance in normal males ( 9 ). We previously found that the increased occurrence of

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Nandini Shankara Narayana Andrology Department, Concord Hospital and, ANZAC Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

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Lam P Ly Andrology Department, Concord Hospital and, ANZAC Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

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Veena Jayadev Andrology Department, Concord Hospital and, ANZAC Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

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Carolyn Fennell Andrology Department, Concord Hospital and, ANZAC Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

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Sasha Savkovic Andrology Department, Concord Hospital and, ANZAC Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

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Ann J Conway Andrology Department, Concord Hospital and, ANZAC Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

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David J Handelsman Andrology Department, Concord Hospital and, ANZAC Research Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

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Introduction Since the discovery and first clinical use of testosterone in the 1930s, its minimal oral bioavailability has led to administration via every non-oral route to circumvent rapid gut and liver metabolism ( 1 ). Since the 1950s, the

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P Herbert School of Sport, Health and Outdoor Education, Trinity Saint David, University of Wales, Wales, UK

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LD Hayes Active Ageing Research Group, Department of Medical and Sport Sciences, University of Cumbria, Lancaster, UK

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NF Sculthorpe Institute of Clinical Exercise and Health Science, University of the West of Scotland, Scotland, UK

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FM Grace Faculty of Health, Federation University, Victoria, Australia

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Introduction Peak muscle power is an important determinant of athletic performance across the lifespan that declines with age ( 1 ) and is accompanied by a precipitous decline in serum testosterone ( 2 ). Both present a noteworthy impediment

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Mette Bøgehave Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Hospital South West Jutland, University Hospital of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, Denmark
Unit for Thrombosis Research, Department of Regional Health Research, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark

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Dorte Glintborg Department of Endocrinology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark
Department of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark
OPEN, Open Patient data Explorative Network, Odense University Hospital, Region of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark

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Jørgen Brodersen Gram Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Hospital South West Jutland, University Hospital of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, Denmark
Unit for Thrombosis Research, Department of Regional Health Research, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark

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Else-Marie Bladbjerg Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Hospital South West Jutland, University Hospital of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, Denmark
Unit for Thrombosis Research, Department of Regional Health Research, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark

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Marianne Skovsager Andersen Department of Endocrinology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark
Department of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark

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Johannes Jakobsen Sidelmann Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Hospital South West Jutland, University Hospital of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, Denmark
Unit for Thrombosis Research, Department of Regional Health Research, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark

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Introduction Opioid medications are widely used to treat chronic non-cancer pain ( 1 ). Male hypogonadism, characterized by low concentrations of testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH), is one of the most well-described hormonal adverse

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Kristin Ottarsdottir Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

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Anna G Nilsson Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
Department of Endocrinology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden

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Margareta Hellgren Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

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Ulf Lindblad Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

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Bledar Daka Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

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Introduction Testosterone plays a key role in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism in men ( 1 ) and women ( 2 ) although in different manners. Low concentrations of testosterone in men are associated with obesity ( 3 ), the metabolic

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