. Somatostatin receptors (SSTs) mediate the effects of the hormone somatostatin. These membrane-bound G-protein-coupled receptors mediate their effects by altering the levels of intracellular calcium and cAMP. They may also heterodimerize with each other, as well
Sara Storvall, Helena Leijon, Eeva Ryhänen, Johanna Louhimo, Caj Haglund, Camilla Schalin-Jäntti and Johanna Arola
Myrtille Fouché, Yves Bouffard, Mary-Charlotte Le Goff, Johanne Prothet, François Malavieille, Pierre Sagnard, Françoise Christin, Davy Hayi-Slayman, Arnaud Pasquer, Gilles Poncet, Thomas Walter and Thomas Rimmelé
metastatic stages (>50% of cases at diagnosis) to prevent local complications and decrease tumour mass ( 9 , 10 ). They also recommend the use of somatostatin analogues due to their anti-proliferative effect on SB-NETs and their antisecretory effect against
Sara Storvall, Helena Leijon, Eeva M Ryhänen, Johanna Louhimo, Caj Haglund, Camilla Schalin-Jantti and Johanna Arola
Introduction: Parathyroid carcinoma represents a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism. Distinguishing carcinoma from the benign tumors underlying primary hyperparathyroidism remains challenging. The diagnostic criteria for parathyroid carcinoma are local and/or metastatic spreading. Atypical parathyroid adenomas share other histological features with carcinomas but lack invasive growth. Somatostatin receptors are commonly expressed in different neuroendocrine tumors, but whether this also holds for parathyroid tumors remains unknown. Our aim is to examine the immunohistochemical expression of somatostatin receptor 1–5 in parathyroid typical adenomas, atypical adenomas, and carcinomas.
Methods: We used a tissue microarray construct from a nationwide cohort of parathyroid carcinomas (n = 32), age- and gender-matched typical parathyroid adenomas (n = 72), and atypical parathyroid adenomas (n = 27) for immunohistochemistry of somatostatin receptor subtypes 1–5. We separately assessed cytoplasmic, membrane, and nuclear expression and also investigated the associations with histological, biochemical, and clinical characteristics.
Results: All parathyroid tumor subgroups expressed somatostatin receptors, although membrane expression appeared negligible. Except for somatostatin receptor 1, expression patterns differed between the three tumor types. Adenomas exhibited the weakest and carcinomas the strongest expression of somatostatin receptor 2, 3, 4 and 5. We observed the largest difference for cytoplasmic somatostatin receptor 5 expression.
Conclusions: Parathyroid adenomas, atypical adenomas, and carcinomas all express somatostatin receptor subtypes 1–5. Somatostatin receptor 5 may serve as a potential tumor marker for malignancy. Studies exploring the role of somatostatin receptor imaging and receptor-specific therapies in patients with parathyroid carcinomas are needed.
Cecilia Follin and Sven Karlsson
surgery necessitates chronic medical treatment. Current medical therapies available to treat acromegaly consist of somatostatin analogues (SSAs) and dopamine agonist (DA) medication, both of which act to suppress GH secretion from pituitary adenomas or
Adrian F Daly, Liliya Rostomyan, Daniela Betea, Jean-François Bonneville, Chiara Villa, Natalia S Pellegata, Beatrice Waser, Jean-Claude Reubi, Catherine Waeber Stephan, Emanuel Christ and Albert Beckers
; in particular those with AIP mutations have a significantly lower hormonal response to first-generation, receptor subtype 2 (SST2) specific somatostatin analogs (octreotide and lanreotide) and have a decreased rate of tumor shrinkage on treatment
Kjell Oberg, Eric Krenning, Anders Sundin, Lisa Bodei, Mark Kidd, Margot Tesselaar, Valentina Ambrosini, Richard P Baum, Matthew Kulke, Marianne Pavel, Jaroslaw Cwikla, Ignat Drozdov, Massimo Falconi, Nicola Fazio, Andrea Frilling, Robert Jensen, Klaus Koopmans, Tiny Korse, Dik Kwekkeboom, Helmut Maecke, Giovanni Paganelli, Ramon Salazar, Stefano Severi, Jonathan Strosberg, Vikas Prasad, Aldo Scarpa, Ashley Grossman, Annemeik Walenkamp, Mauro Cives, Irene Virgolini, Andreas Kjaer and Irvin M Modlin
of radioactive somatostatin analogs ( 10 ). Strategies include somatostatin receptor agonists, ‘targeted’ agents (mTOR inhibitors and VEGF antagonists), immunotherapy (interferon), cytotoxic chemotherapy, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT
Adrian F Daly, David A Cano, Eva Venegas-Moreno, Patrick Petrossians, Elena Dios, Emilie Castermans, Alvaro Flores-Martínez, Vincent Bours, Albert Beckers and Alfonso Soto-Moreno
patients may be resistant to somatostatin analogs (SSA) that target the somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SST2), while a small proportion of prolactinoma patients may not respond to labeled doses of dopamine agonists (DA). Hence, multimodal therapy involving
Alberto Bongiovanni, Federica Recine, Flavia Foca, Valentina Fausti, Nada Riva, Greta Fabbri, Stefano Severi, Chiara Liverani, Alessandro De Vita, Chiara Spadazzi, Giacomo Miserocchi, Laura Mercatali, Dino Amadori and Toni Ibrahim
reported in <15% of cases ( 7 ). Treatment options for metastatic disease comprise liver surgery and/or locoregional and ablative therapies, somatostatin analogs, chemotherapy, targeted therapy and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy ( 8 ). Given the
Majunath R Goroshi, Swati S Jadhav, Anurag R Lila, Rajeev Kasaliwal, Shruti Khare, Chaitanya G Yerawar, Priya Hira, Uday Phadke, Hina Shah, Vikram R Lele, Gaurav Malhotra, Tushar Bandgar and Nalini S Shah
-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-based octreotide scintigraphy ( 123 I-Tyr-3-octreotide and 111 In-DTPA-pentetreotide) and more recently PET-based imaging such as 18 F-FDG PET/CT scan and 68 Ga-based somatostatin receptor (SSTR) positron emission
Rimesh Pal, Sanjay Kumar Bhadada, Awesh Singhare, Anil Bhansali, Sadishkumar Kamalanathan, Manoj Chadha, Phulrenu Chauhan, Ashwani Sood, Vandana Dhiman, Dinesh Chandra Sharma, Uma Nahar Saikia, Debajyoti Chatterjee and Vikas Agashe
somatostatin receptor-based scintigraphy ( 68 Ga-DOTATATE/DOTANOC, 99m Tc-HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy), although 18 F-FDG-PET/CT scan was used in some of the patients. Anatomical tumor localization was done using contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) or