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Peter Ergang, Anna Mikulecká, Martin Vodicˇka, Karla Vagnerová, Ivan Mikšík and Jirˇí Pácha

and some peripheral organs, but the results are contradictory ( 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 ). For example, chronic social stress increased 11HSD1 expression in the rat hippocampus ( 12 ) but decreased it in the hippocampus of tree shrews ( 13

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S U Jayasinghe, S J Torres, C A Nowson, A J Tilbrook and A I Turner

independent of the salivary flow rate (11) and that its response to Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is predictive of the plasma catecholamine response to TSST (13) . Activation of the hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis by stress results in the

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Andrew R Dismukes, Vanessa J Meyer, Elizabeth A Shirtcliff, Katherine P Theall, Kyle C Esteves and Stacy S Drury

fluctuates in response to social stressors ( 2 ). Unlike other steroid hormones that have specific receptors, DHEA binds to a range of receptors, including the estrogen receptor ( 3 ). DHEA serves as a prohormone for estrogen and testosterone and can broadly

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Greta B Raglan, Louis A Schmidt and Jay Schulkin

behavioral pattern related to avoidance. Also similar to individuals with PTSD, low doses of glucocorticoids administered during exposure for social anxiety have been shown to decrease the anxiety response ( 32 ). Studies indicate that chronic social stress

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Legh Wilkinson, Nicolette J D Verhoog and Ann Louw

reduce the GRα pool. Four miRNAs, namely miR-96, miR-101a, miR-142-3p and miR-433, drive reductions in the GRα mRNA pool by up to 40% in mice ( 127 ). Additionally, social stress in mice ( 38 ) and acute stress in rats ( 42 ), resulted in an increase in