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K G Samsom, L M van Veenendaal, G D Valk, M R Vriens, M E T Tesselaar and J G van den Berg

with metastatic small-intestinal NETs (SI-NETs), the carcinoid syndrome is common, which is characterised by diarrhoea, episodic flushing, bronchospasm and often carcinoid heart disease leading to right valvular dysfunction ( 4 ). Patients with non

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Elham Barazeghi, Per Hellman, Gunnar Westin and Peter Stålberg

Introduction Small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) arise from enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract, which are small and slow-growing (Ki67 proliferation index is often <2%) tumors with annual incidence of 1 per 100

Open access

Annieke C G van Baar, Andrei Prodan, Camilla D Wahlgren, Steen S Poulsen, Filip K Knop, Albert K Groen, Jacques J Bergman, Max Nieuwdorp and Evgeni Levin

Introduction The small intestinal mucosa orchestrates a complex response to a range of internal and external stimuli. A pivotal role is played by enteroendocrine cells, whose dysfunction has been linked to metabolic diseases such as obesity

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Irvin M Modlin, Harry Aslanian, Lisa Bodei, Ignat Drozdov and Mark Kidd

cell tumors), as well as small intestinal ‘carcinoids’ (secretin, serotonin, and a variety of tachykinins) and colorectal lesions (enteroglucagon, GLP1, and pancreatic polypeptide (PP)). The conundrum of identifying a global marker for NETs therefore

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Merete Gedde-Dahl, Espen Thiis-Evensen, Andreas Myklebust Tjølsen, Kjerstin Skrede Mordal, Morten Vatn and Deidi S Bergestuen

with endocrine functions (1) . Small intestinal NETs often produce vasoactive substances that may result in the carcinoid syndrome, symptoms of which include flushing, diarrhea, carcinoid heart disease, and bronchospasm. The syndrome is almost

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Ashley K Clift, Omar Faiz, Robert Goldin, John Martin, Harpreet Wasan, Marc-Olaf Liedke, Erik Schloericke, Anna Malczewska, Guido Rindi, Mark Kidd, Irvin M Modlin and Andrea Frilling

permission, from Modlin IM, Gustafsson BI, Pavel M, Svejda B, Lawrence B & Kidd M (2010) A nomogram to assess small-intestinal neuroendocrine tumor (‘carcinoid’) survival, Neuroendocrinology , volume 92 , pages 143–157. Copyright 2010 Karger Publishers

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Jakob Kirkegård, Dora Körmendiné Farkas, Jens Otto Lunde Jørgensen and Deirdre P Cronin-Fenton

almost all cancer diagnoses in Denmark since 1943 ( 10 ). We considered the following cancers: esophageal, stomach, small intestinal, colon, rectal, anal, liver, gallbladder and biliary tract and pancreatic cancer. We excluded all patients diagnosed with

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Kosmas Daskalakis, Marina Tsoli, Anna Angelousi, Evanthia Kassi, Krystallenia I Alexandraki, Denise Kolomodi, Gregory Kaltsas and Anna Koumarianou

included in the study, 74 had sporadic tumours and 8 familial NENs in the context of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) syndrome. Based on primary tumour location, cases were grouped into small intestinal NENs ( n  = 21), pancreatic NENs (PanNENs

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Kjell Oberg, Eric Krenning, Anders Sundin, Lisa Bodei, Mark Kidd, Margot Tesselaar, Valentina Ambrosini, Richard P Baum, Matthew Kulke, Marianne Pavel, Jaroslaw Cwikla, Ignat Drozdov, Massimo Falconi, Nicola Fazio, Andrea Frilling, Robert Jensen, Klaus Koopmans, Tiny Korse, Dik Kwekkeboom, Helmut Maecke, Giovanni Paganelli, Ramon Salazar, Stefano Severi, Jonathan Strosberg, Vikas Prasad, Aldo Scarpa, Ashley Grossman, Annemeik Walenkamp, Mauro Cives, Irene Virgolini, Andreas Kjaer and Irvin M Modlin

genomic studies seeking underlying driver mutations have proven disappointing ( 39 , 40 ), transcriptome assessments have been useful in identifying and differentiating the different subtypes of NENs (based on origin e.g., pancreatic vs small intestinal

Open access

Roxanne C S van Adrichem, Aart Jan van der Lely, Martin Huisman, Piet Kramer, Richard A Feelders, Patric J D Delhanty and Wouter W de Herder

first case report of hyperghrelinemia associated by a small intestinal NET. He has a stage IIA, grade 2 NET that was found accidently after a short period of abdominal pain and fever. At the time of referral, he had no other clinical symptoms. Laboratory