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Henrik H Thomsen, Holger J Møller, Christian Trolle, Kristian A Groth, Anne Skakkebæk, Anders Bojesen, Christian Høst, and Claus H Gravholt

Soluble CD163 (sCD163) is a novel marker linked to states of low-grade inflammation such as diabetes, obesity, liver disease, and atherosclerosis, all prevalent in subjects with Turner syndrome (TS) and Klinefelter syndrome (KS). We aimed to assess the levels of sCD163 and the regulation of sCD163 in regards to treatment with sex hormone therapy in males with and without KS and females with and without TS. Males with KS (n=70) and age-matched controls (n=71) participating in a cross-sectional study and 12 healthy males from an experimental hypogonadism study. Females with TS (n=8) and healthy age-matched controls (n=8) participating in a randomized crossover trial. The intervention comprised of treatment with sex steroids. Males with KS had higher levels of sCD163 compared with controls (1.75 (0.47–6.90) and 1.36 (0.77–3.11) respectively, P<0.001) and the levels correlated to plasma testosterone (r=−0.31, P<0.01), BMI (r=0.42, P<0.001), and homeostasis model of assessment insulin resistance (r=0.46, P<0.001). Treatment with testosterone did not significantly lower sCD163. Females with TS not receiving hormone replacement therapy (HRT) had higher levels of sCD163 than those of their age-matched healthy controls (1.38±0.44 vs 0.91±0.40, P=0.04). HRT and oral contraceptive therapy decreased sCD163 in TS by 22% (1.07±0.30) and in controls by 39% (0.55±0.36), with significance in both groups (P=0.01 and P=0.04). We conclude that levels of sCD163 correlate with endogenous testosterone in KS and are higher in KS subjects compared with controls, but treatment did not significantly lower levels. Both endogenous and exogenous estradiol in TS was associated with lower levels of sCD163.

Open access

Johanna Christina Penell, Mark M Kushnir, Lars Lind, Jonatan Bergquist, Jonas Bergquist, P Monica Lind, and Tord Naessen

inter-variation than estradiol ( 7 , 12 ), which declines with the onset of menopause. Estradiol levels are very low in postmenopausal women ( 7 ) but play an important role for physiological functions. Although data on endogenous sex steroid

Open access

Masatada Watanabe, Shuji Ohno, and Hiroshi Wachi

Introduction Sex steroids are important for the maintenance of healthy skin. Based on studies on older women, sex steroids in skin regulate the collagen content and the synthesis of hyaluronic acid ( 1 ). Estrogen-conjugated cream applied to

Open access

M Boering, P R van Dijk, S J J Logtenberg, K H Groenier, B H R Wolffenbuttel, R O B Gans, N Kleefstra, and H J G Bilo

suggested to influence several extra-glycemic, metabolic, and endocrinological parameters, such as the sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). SHBG is a glycoprotein produced in the liver, which regulates the bioavailability of sex steroids for target tissues

Open access

Sakina Kherra, Wendy Forsyth Paterson, Filiz Mine Cizmecioglu, Jeremy Huw Jones, Mariam Kourime, Heba Hassan Elsedfy, Sameh Tawfik, Andreas Kyriakou, Mohamad Guftar Shaikh, and Malcolm David Cairns Donaldson

morbid obesity and the fear of sex steroid replacement exacerbating existing behavioural problems. Regarding the concern over obesity, our study shows the significant mortality in PWS and that, consistent with data from France ( 29 ) and the United

Open access

Luca Persani, Biagio Cangiano, and Marco Bonomi

alterations. Importantly, in MPHDs other major confounders must be taken into account. Both estrogens and GH influence thyroid hormone transport and/or metabolism and consequently interfere CeH management ( 33 , 60 ). Sex steroid and GH deficiencies can

Open access

Britt J van Keulen, Conor V Dolan, Bibian van der Voorn, Ruth Andrew, Brian R Walker, Hilleke Hulshoff Pol, Dorret I Boomsma, Joost Rotteveel, and Martijn J J Finken

cortisol levels. Compared to girls, boys, up to age 8, had higher salivary cortisol levels and lower levels beyond this age ( 11 ). The timing of this change suggests that sex steroids influence the HPA axis. Surprisingly, to the best of our knowledge

Open access

Qiu-ming Yao, Bin Wang, Xiao-fei An, Jin-an Zhang, and Liumei Ding

. However, other studies suggest that T2DM is a risk factor for testosterone deficiency and impaired sex steroid status ( 73 ). One large prospective study showed that the development of T2DM is a major driver of the age-related testosterone decline ( 74

Open access

Emanuelle Nunes-Souza, Mônica Evelise Silveira, Monalisa Castilho Mendes, Seigo Nagashima, Caroline Busatta Vaz de Paula, Guilherme Guilherme Vieira Cavalcante da Silva, Giovanna Silva Barbosa, Julia Belgrowicz Martins, Lúcia de Noronha, Luana Lenzi, José Renato Sales Barbosa, Rayssa Danilow Fachin Donin, Juliana Ferreira de Moura, Gislaine Custódio, Cleber Machado-Souza, Enzo Lalli, and Bonald Cavalcante de Figueiredo

published in the same geographic region associating clinical data and blood DHEAS levels <2040 nmol/L, probably because sex steroids from ovaries are still abundant in pre-menopausal women. Benetti-Pinto et al. ( 27 ) have reported similar DHEAS levels

Open access

Lachlan Angus, Shalem Leemaqz, Olivia Ooi, Pauline Cundill, Nicholas Silberstein, Peter Locke, Jeffrey D Zajac, and Ada S Cheung

oestradiol as feminising gender-affirming hormone therapy ( 3 ). Goals of therapy are generally to increase serum oestradiol concentrations and lower serum total testosterone concentrations to achieve sex steroid concentrations in the female reference range