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Legh Wilkinson, Nicolette J D Verhoog and Ann Louw

resistance and result in the progression of many psychological and pathological conditions. Endogenous GCs, which are regulated by the HPA axis, are physiological mediators secreted in an ultradian or circadian manner ( 3 ) or in response to internal or

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Magdalene K Montgomery and Nigel Turner

resistance (IR)). Figure 1 Fatty acids and glucose enter the cell via various membrane transporters. Fatty acids can either be converted to ‘active’ (DAG and ceramide) and ‘inert’ (TAG) lipid species or be transported into the mitochondria for oxidation to

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Krzysztof C Lewandowski, Justyna Płusajska, Wojciech Horzelski, Ewa Bieniek and Andrzej Lewiński

out. Though it is widely accepted that PCOS is characterised by insulin resistance ( 4 ), there is no consensus, either regarding the best method of assessment of insulin resistance (IR) in PCOS, nor in terms of the utility of such assessment for

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Shenglong Le, Leiting Xu, Moritz Schumann, Na Wu, Timo Törmäkangas, Markku Alén, Sulin Cheng and Petri Wiklund

substantially during puberty ( 6 , 7 ). Along these lines, low serum SHBG level has been associated with increased adiposity and insulin resistance in children and adolescents ( 3 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 ); therefore, it has been hypothesized that SHBG

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Kristin Ottarsdottir, Anna G Nilsson, Margareta Hellgren, Ulf Lindblad and Bledar Daka

( 10 ). On the other hand, low testosterone levels increase the accumulation of visceral body fat, which increases insulin resistance. This is illustrated by the fact that body fat increases in men with prostate cancer undergoing treatment resulting in

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Adrian F Daly, David A Cano, Eva Venegas-Moreno, Patrick Petrossians, Elena Dios, Emilie Castermans, Alvaro Flores-Martínez, Vincent Bours, Albert Beckers and Alfonso Soto-Moreno

adenoma patients and those with pituitary macroadenomas (particularly acromegaly), occurring ≤30 years of age ( 20 , 21 , 22 ). Given the characteristic resistance to SST2-specific SSA in AIP mut acromegaly, it has been suggested that such patients

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Esben Thyssen Vestergaard, Morten B Krag, Morten M Poulsen, Steen B Pedersen, Niels Moller, Jens Otto Lunde Jorgensen and Niels Jessen

GHS-R is also located in peripheral tissues indicates that ghrelin also exerts direct peripheral effects (5, 6) . It has recently been reported that exogenous ghrelin causes insulin resistance (7, 8, 9, 10, 11) and induces lipolysis (7, 9, 10, 11

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Stavroula A Paschou, Eleni Palioura, Dimitrios Ioannidis, Panagiotis Anagnostis, Argyro Panagiotakou, Vasiliki Loi, Georgios Karageorgos, Dimitrios G Goulis and Andromachi Vryonidou

Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism ( 1 ). It is often accompanied by insulin resistance ( 2 ) and abnormal lipid profile ( 3 , 4 ). Several studies have shown that

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Karim Gariani, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Gérard Waeber, Peter Vollenweider and François R Jornayvaz

(TG) level, increased insulin resistance (IR) and a higher fasting plasma glucose ( 5 ). Patients with T2DM may exhibit evidence of subclinical hypercortisolism such as higher 24-h urine-free cortisol levels, higher plasma cortisol levels after

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Anne H van der Spek, Olga V Surovtseva, Saskia Aan, Anton T J Tool, Annemarie van de Geer, Korcan Demir, Anja L M van Gucht, A S Paul van Trotsenburg, Timo K van den Berg, Eric Fliers and Anita Boelen

). Patients with resistance to TH due to mutations in TRβ (RTHβ) were first characterized decades ago. The first patients with inactivating mutations of the TH receptor α (TRα) were only recently identified ( 10 , 11 ). Since then, 14 different mutations in