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Laura van Iersel, Sarah C Clement, Antoinette Y N Schouten-van Meeteren, Annemieke M Boot, Hedi L Claahsen-van der Grinten, Bernd Granzen, K Sen Han, Geert O Janssens, Erna M Michiels, A S Paul van Trotsenburg, W Peter Vandertop, Dannis G van Vuurden, Hubert N Caron, Leontien C M Kremer and Hanneke M van Santen

Introduction Childhood brain tumor survivors (CBTS) have an increased risk of developing central hypothyroidism due to damage of the hypothalamic–pituitary (HP) region, especially after exposure to cranial radiotherapy (cRT) ( 1 , 2 ). The

Open access

Joana Simões-Pereira, Daniel Macedo and Maria João Bugalho

. Those patients not eligible for surgery may undergo stereotaxic radiosurgery (SRS) or whole-brain radiotherapy (WBR). RAI can be considered for iodine-avid CNS metastases, under glucocorticoid therapy to minimize the TSH-induced effects and the

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Ravikumar Shah, Anurag R Lila, Ramteke-Swati Jadhav, Virendra Patil, Abhishek Mahajan, Sushil Sonawane, Puja Thadani, Anil Dcruz, Prathamesh Pai, Munita Bal, Subhada Kane, Nalini Shah and Tushar Bandgar

–204 months. Patients with persistent/recurrent disease ( n  = 29) were predominantly managed with surgery (65.3%) and/or radiotherapy (30.7%). Among these patients 11 were reported to be alive with no evidence of disease (ANED) and remaining patients were

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Helga Schultz, Svend Aage Engelholm, Eva Harder, Ulrik Pedersen-Bjergaard and Peter Lommer Kristensen

. If the diagnosis of MSCC is confirmed, the patient is offered either radiotherapy alone or surgical decompression followed by radiotherapy. High-dose glucocorticoid therapy has been proven beneficial as an adjunct to radiotherapy ( 8 ) and is most

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Julie M Silverstein

psychosocial profile (14) . This includes increased anxiety, body image distortion, depression, impaired short- and long-term memory, and social withdrawal. Surgery, medical therapy, and radiotherapy are the current multimodal treatment options available for

Open access

G Giuffrida, F Ferraù, R Laudicella, O R Cotta, E Messina, F Granata, F F Angileri, A Vento, A Alibrandi, S Baldari and S Cannavò

‘invasive’ or ‘aggressive’ ( 1 ). Moreover, the term ‘giant’ adenoma is usually applied to those tumors exceeding 40 mm in maximum diameter ( 2 ). In PT patients, multimodal treatment, including neurosurgery, drugs and radiotherapy, is generally effective

Open access

Ravikumar Shah, Anurag Ranjan Lila, Swati Jadhav, Virendra A Patil, Abhishek Mahajan, Sushil Sonawane, Puja Thadani, Anil K Dcruz, Prathamesh S Pai, Munita Bal, Subhada Kane, Nalini Shah and Tushar Ramkrishna Bandgar

Tumor induced osteomalacia in the head and neck region remains a challenging diagnosis to manage. Literature pertaining to management and outcome details remains sparse. We describe two cohorts; Cohort one included seven patients from a single center in Western India with tumors located in paranasal sinuses (n=3), intracranial (n=2) and maxilla (n=2). The unique features from our series is management of persistent disease with radiation therapy (n=2) and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) (n=1). Cohort two has 163 patients identified from 109 publications for systematic review. Paranasal sinuses, mandible, intracranial disease, maxilla and oral cavity, in descending order, are reportedly common tumour sites. Within this cohort, mean age was 46 ± 14 years at presentation with 44.1% having local symptoms. Duration of symptoms varied from 1-240 months. Pre-surgery mean serum phosphorus was 1.4 ± 0.4 mg/dl and median FGF-23 levels were 3.6 (IQR:1.8-6.8) times of normal upper limit of normal. Majority (97.5%) were managed primarily with surgical excision, however, primary radiotherapy (n=2) and surgery combined with radiotherapy (n=2), were also reported. Twenty patients had persistent disease while nine patients had recurrence, more commonly noted with intracranial and oral cavity tumors. Surgery was the most common second mode of treatment employed succeeded by radiotherapy. Four patients had metastatic disease. The most common histopathological diagnosis reported is 'PMT-mixed connective tissue', while the newer terminology 'PMT-mixed epithelial and connective tissue type' has been described in 15 patients.

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Carina Hasenoehrl, Gert Schwach, Nassim Ghaffari-Tabrizi-Wizsy, Robert Fuchs, Nadine Kretschmer, Rudolf Bauer and Roswitha Pfragner

New treatment options are needed for medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), a highly metastasizing neuroendocrine tumor that is resistant to standard radiotherapy and chemotherapy. We show that the following shikonin derivatives inhibit cell proliferation and cell viability of the MTC cell line TT: acetylshikonin, β,β-dimethylacrylshikonin, shikonin and a petroleum ether extract of the roots of Onosma paniculata containing several shikonin derivatives. The unsubstituted shikonin derivative was found to be the most effective compound with an IC50 of 1.1 µM. The cell viability of normal human skin fibroblasts, however, was not affected by the tested substances, indicating that shikonin derivatives might be selectively toxic for cancer cells. We further report that migration and invasion of TT cells were inhibited at non-toxic concentrations. Finally, shikonin was tested in vivo using the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay, where it significantly reduced tumor growth by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis. In summary, our results suggest that shikonin derivatives have the potential for the treatment of medullary thyroid carcinomas.

Open access

Keina Nishio, Akiko Tanabe, Risa Maruoka, Kiyoko Nakamura, Masaaki Takai, Tatsuharu Sekijima, Satoshi Tunetoh, Yoshito Terai and Masahide Ohmichi

-oophorectomy, and a pelvic lymphadenectomy, followed by CCRT. Pelvic radiotherapy was delivered using a 10 MV X-ray from a linear accelerator with the anteroposterior parallel opposing technique. The superior margin of the external radiation field was placed on the

Open access

Jan-Bernd Stukenborg, Kirsi Jahnukainen, Marsida Hutka and Rod T Mitchell

a result of the underlying cancer (e.g. testicular cancer) or due to the damaging effects of chemotherapy or radiotherapy ( 4 ). Treatments that directly damage the SSC population will impact on subsequent fertility; however, indirect effects on germ