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Laura van Iersel, Sarah C Clement, Antoinette Y N Schouten-van Meeteren, Annemieke M Boot, Hedi L Claahsen-van der Grinten, Bernd Granzen, K Sen Han, Geert O Janssens, Erna M Michiels, A S Paul van Trotsenburg, W Peter Vandertop, Dannis G van Vuurden, Hubert N Caron, Leontien C M Kremer and Hanneke M van Santen

Introduction Childhood brain tumor survivors (CBTS) have an increased risk of developing central hypothyroidism due to damage of the hypothalamic–pituitary (HP) region, especially after exposure to cranial radiotherapy (cRT) ( 1 , 2 ). The

Open access

Aleksandra Kukulska, Jolanta Krajewska, Zofia Kolosza, Ewa Paliczka-Cieslik, Aleksandra Kropinska, Agnieszka Pawlaczek, Zbigniew Puch, Kornelia Ficek, Teresa Lisik, Dorota Sygula, Zbigniew Wygoda, Jozef Roskosz, Jerzy Wydmanski and Barbara Jarzab

treatment modalities, including chemo and radiotherapy, demonstrate a limited efficacy in MTC ( 6 ). Radiotherapy may be applied in MTC patients either as an adjuvant treatment or as a palliative approach. Palliative radiotherapy is an effective and accepted

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Joana Simões-Pereira, Daniel Macedo and Maria João Bugalho

. Those patients not eligible for surgery may undergo stereotaxic radiosurgery (SRS) or whole-brain radiotherapy (WBR). RAI can be considered for iodine-avid CNS metastases, under glucocorticoid therapy to minimize the TSH-induced effects and the

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Ravikumar Shah, Anurag R Lila, Ramteke-Swati Jadhav, Virendra Patil, Abhishek Mahajan, Sushil Sonawane, Puja Thadani, Anil Dcruz, Prathamesh Pai, Munita Bal, Subhada Kane, Nalini Shah and Tushar Bandgar

–204 months. Patients with persistent/recurrent disease ( n  = 29) were predominantly managed with surgery (65.3%) and/or radiotherapy (30.7%). Among these patients 11 were reported to be alive with no evidence of disease (ANED) and remaining patients were

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Helga Schultz, Svend Aage Engelholm, Eva Harder, Ulrik Pedersen-Bjergaard and Peter Lommer Kristensen

. If the diagnosis of MSCC is confirmed, the patient is offered either radiotherapy alone or surgical decompression followed by radiotherapy. High-dose glucocorticoid therapy has been proven beneficial as an adjunct to radiotherapy ( 8 ) and is most

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Julie M Silverstein

psychosocial profile (14) . This includes increased anxiety, body image distortion, depression, impaired short- and long-term memory, and social withdrawal. Surgery, medical therapy, and radiotherapy are the current multimodal treatment options available for

Open access

G Giuffrida, F Ferraù, R Laudicella, O R Cotta, E Messina, F Granata, F F Angileri, A Vento, A Alibrandi, S Baldari and S Cannavò

‘invasive’ or ‘aggressive’ ( 1 ). Moreover, the term ‘giant’ adenoma is usually applied to those tumors exceeding 40 mm in maximum diameter ( 2 ). In PT patients, multimodal treatment, including neurosurgery, drugs and radiotherapy, is generally effective

Open access

Carina Hasenoehrl, Gert Schwach, Nassim Ghaffari-Tabrizi-Wizsy, Robert Fuchs, Nadine Kretschmer, Rudolf Bauer and Roswitha Pfragner

New treatment options are needed for medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), a highly metastasizing neuroendocrine tumor that is resistant to standard radiotherapy and chemotherapy. We show that the following shikonin derivatives inhibit cell proliferation and cell viability of the MTC cell line TT: acetylshikonin, β,β-dimethylacrylshikonin, shikonin and a petroleum ether extract of the roots of Onosma paniculata containing several shikonin derivatives. The unsubstituted shikonin derivative was found to be the most effective compound with an IC50 of 1.1 µM. The cell viability of normal human skin fibroblasts, however, was not affected by the tested substances, indicating that shikonin derivatives might be selectively toxic for cancer cells. We further report that migration and invasion of TT cells were inhibited at non-toxic concentrations. Finally, shikonin was tested in vivo using the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay, where it significantly reduced tumor growth by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis. In summary, our results suggest that shikonin derivatives have the potential for the treatment of medullary thyroid carcinomas.

Open access

B C M Hermans, J L Derks, H J M Groen, J A Stigt, R J van Suylen, L M Hillen, E C van den Broek, E J M Speel and A-M C Dingemans

). Furthermore, we identified one additional LCNEC patient treated in our own hospital with lobectomy and stereotactic radiotherapy targeting his solitary brain metastasis (2015). Clinical characteristics and survival data were retrieved from medical records

Open access

Keina Nishio, Akiko Tanabe, Risa Maruoka, Kiyoko Nakamura, Masaaki Takai, Tatsuharu Sekijima, Satoshi Tunetoh, Yoshito Terai and Masahide Ohmichi

-oophorectomy, and a pelvic lymphadenectomy, followed by CCRT. Pelvic radiotherapy was delivered using a 10 MV X-ray from a linear accelerator with the anteroposterior parallel opposing technique. The superior margin of the external radiation field was placed on the