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Laura van Iersel, Sarah C Clement, Antoinette Y N Schouten-van Meeteren, Annemieke M Boot, Hedi L Claahsen-van der Grinten, Bernd Granzen, K Sen Han, Geert O Janssens, Erna M Michiels, A S Paul van Trotsenburg, W Peter Vandertop, Dannis G van Vuurden, Hubert N Caron, Leontien C M Kremer and Hanneke M van Santen

Introduction Childhood brain tumor survivors (CBTS) have an increased risk of developing central hypothyroidism due to damage of the hypothalamic–pituitary (HP) region, especially after exposure to cranial radiotherapy (cRT) ( 1 , 2 ). The

Open access

Joana Simões-Pereira, Daniel Macedo and Maria João Bugalho

. Those patients not eligible for surgery may undergo stereotaxic radiosurgery (SRS) or whole-brain radiotherapy (WBR). RAI can be considered for iodine-avid CNS metastases, under glucocorticoid therapy to minimize the TSH-induced effects and the

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Helga Schultz, Svend Aage Engelholm, Eva Harder, Ulrik Pedersen-Bjergaard and Peter Lommer Kristensen

. If the diagnosis of MSCC is confirmed, the patient is offered either radiotherapy alone or surgical decompression followed by radiotherapy. High-dose glucocorticoid therapy has been proven beneficial as an adjunct to radiotherapy ( 8 ) and is most

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Julie M Silverstein

psychosocial profile (14) . This includes increased anxiety, body image distortion, depression, impaired short- and long-term memory, and social withdrawal. Surgery, medical therapy, and radiotherapy are the current multimodal treatment options available for

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G Giuffrida, F Ferraù, R Laudicella, O R Cotta, E Messina, F Granata, F F Angileri, A Vento, A Alibrandi, S Baldari and S Cannavò

‘invasive’ or ‘aggressive’ ( 1 ). Moreover, the term ‘giant’ adenoma is usually applied to those tumors exceeding 40 mm in maximum diameter ( 2 ). In PT patients, multimodal treatment, including neurosurgery, drugs and radiotherapy, is generally effective

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Carina Hasenoehrl, Gert Schwach, Nassim Ghaffari-Tabrizi-Wizsy, Robert Fuchs, Nadine Kretschmer, Rudolf Bauer and Roswitha Pfragner

New treatment options are needed for medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), a highly metastasizing neuroendocrine tumor that is resistant to standard radiotherapy and chemotherapy. We show that the following shikonin derivatives inhibit cell proliferation and cell viability of the MTC cell line TT: acetylshikonin, β,β-dimethylacrylshikonin, shikonin and a petroleum ether extract of the roots of Onosma paniculata containing several shikonin derivatives. The unsubstituted shikonin derivative was found to be the most effective compound with an IC50 of 1.1 µM. The cell viability of normal human skin fibroblasts, however, was not affected by the tested substances, indicating that shikonin derivatives might be selectively toxic for cancer cells. We further report that migration and invasion of TT cells were inhibited at non-toxic concentrations. Finally, shikonin was tested in vivo using the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay, where it significantly reduced tumor growth by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis. In summary, our results suggest that shikonin derivatives have the potential for the treatment of medullary thyroid carcinomas.

Open access

Keina Nishio, Akiko Tanabe, Risa Maruoka, Kiyoko Nakamura, Masaaki Takai, Tatsuharu Sekijima, Satoshi Tunetoh, Yoshito Terai and Masahide Ohmichi

-oophorectomy, and a pelvic lymphadenectomy, followed by CCRT. Pelvic radiotherapy was delivered using a 10 MV X-ray from a linear accelerator with the anteroposterior parallel opposing technique. The superior margin of the external radiation field was placed on the

Open access

Jan-Bernd Stukenborg, Kirsi Jahnukainen, Marsida Hutka and Rod T Mitchell

a result of the underlying cancer (e.g. testicular cancer) or due to the damaging effects of chemotherapy or radiotherapy ( 4 ). Treatments that directly damage the SSC population will impact on subsequent fertility; however, indirect effects on germ

Open access

Deborah Cosentini, Salvatore Grisanti, Alberto Dalla Volta, Marta Laganà, Chiara Fiorentini, Paola Perotti, Sandra Sigala and Alfredo Berruti

predisposing condition of response to immunotherapy. Moreover, there is an increasing interest in combining chemotherapy, radiotherapy or molecular target therapies with immunotherapy ( 28 , 29 ) and of course also agents inhibiting steroid synthesis may have

Open access

Cecilia Follin and Sven Karlsson

enrolled in this study on average 13.5 (1–38) years after diagnosis. Among these patients, 17/23 had been treated with surgery and three patients had been treated with radiotherapy. All patients were treated with SSA with a median duration of 13 (1