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Marieke S Velema, Evie J M Linssen, Ad R M M Hermus, Hans J M M Groenewoud, Gert-Jan van der Wilt, Antonius E van Herwaarden, Jacques W M Lenders, Henri J L M Timmers and Jaap Deinum

Introduction For the detection of primary aldosteronism (PA), hypertensive patients are screened using the aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR). An elevated ratio requires confirmatory testing. One commonly used confirmation test as recommended by

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Marianne Aa Grytaas, Kjersti Sellevåg, Hrafnkell B Thordarson, Eystein S Husebye, Kristian Løvås and Terje H Larsen

Introduction Primary aldosteronism (PA) has been recognized as the most common cause of secondary hypertension (HT), with estimated prevalence of 5–12% of all hypertensive subjects ( 1 , 2 ). In patients with refractory HT, PA may be present

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Lukas Engler, Christian Adolf, Daniel A Heinrich, Anna-Katharine Brem, Anna Riester, Anna Franke, Felix Beuschlein, Martin Reincke, Axel Steiger and Heike Künzel

Introduction Patients with primary aldosteronism (PA) are thought to be a natural model for chronic aldosterone excess, showing significantly higher scores for depression and anxiety compared to the general population, with females being more

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Marieke Stientje Velema, Aline de Nooijer, Ad R M M Hermus, Henri J L M Timmers, Jacques W M Lenders, Olga Husson and Jaap Deinum

Introduction Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a common cause of hypertension, accounting for 5–15% of hypertensive patients ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). PA is categorized in an aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) or bilateral adrenal hyperplasia (BAH). When

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Takuhiro Sonoyama, Masakatsu Sone, Naohisa Tamura, Kyoko Honda, Daisuke Taura, Katsutoshi Kojima, Yorihide Fukuda, Naotetsu Kanamoto, Masako Miura, Akihiro Yasoda, Hiroshi Arai, Hiroshi Itoh and Kazuwa Nakao

conditions are mild compared with those of AII and potassium (1) . Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a major cause of secondary hypertension, affecting 5–10% of all hypertensive patients (2, 3, 4) . In PA, aldosterone is autonomously secreted from the adrenal

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Peng Fan, Chao-Xia Lu, Di Zhang, Kun-Qi Yang, Pei-Pei Lu, Ying Zhang, Xu Meng, Su-Fang Hao, Fang Luo, Ya-Xin Liu, Hui-Min Zhang, Lei Song, Jun Cai, Xue Zhang and Xian-Liang Zhou

combined with hypokalemia is seen in several disorders, such as Liddle syndrome (LS), familial primary aldosteronism (PA), apparent mineralocorticoid excess, 11β-hydroxylase deficiency and 17α-hydroxylase deficiency ( 2 ). The phenotypic similarity

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Kristin Viste, Marianne A Grytaas, Melissa D Jørstad, Dag E Jøssang, Eivind N Høyden, Solveig S Fotland, Dag K Jensen, Kristian Løvås, Hrafnkell Thordarson, Bjørg Almås and Gunnar Mellgren

Introduction Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a common cause of secondary hypertension; the prevalence is 2–15% in selected cohorts of hypertensive patients (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) . Patients with PA have higher cardiovascular mortality and morbidity than

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Gamze Akkuş, Isa Burak Güney, Fesih Ok, Mehtap Evran, Volkan Izol, Şeyda Erdoğan, Yıldırım Bayazıt, Murat Sert and Tamer Tetiker

Cushing syndrome, primary aldosteronism and pheochromocytoma. Based on the obtained findings, functional adrenal masses and malignant potential tumors are operated on, whereas those with non-functional and benign characteristic of radiological evaluation

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Efstratios Kardalas, Stavroula A Paschou, Panagiotis Anagnostis, Giovanna Muscogiuri, Gerasimos Siasos and Andromachi Vryonidou

). In general, there are two major components of the diagnostic evaluation: (a) assessment of urinary potassium excretion in order to distinguish renal potassium losses (e.g., diuretic therapy, primary aldosteronism) from other causes of hypokalemia (e

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Frans H H Leenen, Mordecai P Blaustein and John M Hamlyn

.1016/0006-8993(87)91555-1  50 Kontak AC Wang Z Arbique D Adams-Huet B Auchus RJ Nesbitt SD Victor RG Vongpatanasin W. Reversible sympathetic overactivity in hypertensive patients with primary aldosteronism . Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and