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Yao Chen Hangzhou Fuyang Women and Children Hospital, Hangzhou, China

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Shu-ying Fang Hangzhou Fuyang Women and Children Hospital, Hangzhou, China

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Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous and complex disorder of reproductive aged women, which usually causes reproduction and metabolism failure ( 1 , 2 ). It often presents as hyperandrogenism, hyperinsulinemia

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Angela Köninger Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany

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Antonella Iannaccone Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany

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Ensar Hajder Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany

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Mirjam Frank Institute for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology (IMIBE), University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany

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Boerge Schmidt Institute for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology (IMIBE), University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany

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Ekkehard Schleussner Department of Obstetrics, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany

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Rainer Kimmig Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany

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Alexandra Gellhaus Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany

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Hans Dieplinger Division of Genetic Epidemiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria

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. Revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic criteria and long-term health risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) . Human Reproduction 2004 19 41 – 47 . ( https://doi.org/10.1093/humrep/deh098 ) 4 Fauser BC Tarlatzis BC Rebar RW Legro RS Balen

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Sanna Mustaniemi Public Health Promotion Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
PEDEGO Research Unit, MRC Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

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Marja Vääräsmäki Public Health Promotion Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
PEDEGO Research Unit, MRC Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

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Johan G Eriksson Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
Folkhälsan Research Centre, Helsinki, Finland

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Mika Gissler Information Services Department, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
Division of Family Medicine, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden

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Hannele Laivuori Medical and Clinical Genetics, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland
Faculty of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland
Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, Helsinki Institute of Life Science, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

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Hilkka Ijäs Public Health Promotion Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
PEDEGO Research Unit, MRC Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

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Aini Bloigu PEDEGO Research Unit, MRC Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

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Eero Kajantie Public Health Promotion Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
PEDEGO Research Unit, MRC Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Children’s Hospital, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland

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Laure Morin-Papunen PEDEGO Research Unit, MRC Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland

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Introduction Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are the most common endocrine disorders in women of reproductive age. The prevalence of GDM varies from 9% to 25% and the prevalence of PCOS varies from 5

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Krzysztof C Lewandowski Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland
Polish Mother’s Memorial Hospital–Research Institute, Lodz, Poland

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Justyna Płusajska Polish Mother’s Memorial Hospital–Research Institute, Lodz, Poland

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Wojciech Horzelski Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland

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Ewa Bieniek Polish Mother’s Memorial Hospital–Research Institute, Lodz, Poland

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Andrzej Lewiński Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland
Polish Mother’s Memorial Hospital–Research Institute, Lodz, Poland

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presented in Table 2 . Table 2 Percentile distribution of insulin resistance indices in a group of 478 women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Percentiles HOMA (95% CI) IRI (Belfiore) (95% CI) QUICKI (95% CI) McAuley (95% CI

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Thozhukat Sathyapalan Department of Academic Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hull York Medical School, University of Hull, Hull, UK

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Anne-Marie Coady Department of Obstetric Ultrasound, Hull and East Yorkshire Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Hull, UK

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Eric S Kilpatrick Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Sidra Medical and Research Center, Doha, Qatar

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Stephen L Atkin Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, Doha, Qatar

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reduction in insulin resistance especially with weight loss in patients with T2DM will result in normalisation of pancreatic β-cell requirement and even reversal of T2DM ( 9 ). Statins have shown to improve certain features of polycystic ovary syndrome

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Xia Wu Department of Endocrinology, Jing’an District Centre Hospital of Shanghai (Huashan Hospital Fudan University Jing’an Branch), Shanghai, China

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Zhiling Li Department of Pharmacy, Shanghai Children’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China

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Wenjiang Sun Department of Rehabilitation, Shanghai General Hospital, Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China

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Huan Zheng Department of Cardiology, Worldpath Clinic International, Shanghai, China

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Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders, affecting 6–21% of women of reproductive age depending on the population studied and the diagnostic criteria applied ( 1 ). It is characterized by

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Angela Köninger
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Philippos Edimiris
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Laura Koch
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Antje Enekwe
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Claudia Lamina Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Division of Genetic Epidemiology, Vitateq Biotechnology GmbH, University of Duisburg-Essen, D-45122 Essen, Germany

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Sabine Kasimir-Bauer
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Rainer Kimmig
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Hans Dieplinger Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Division of Genetic Epidemiology, Vitateq Biotechnology GmbH, University of Duisburg-Essen, D-45122 Essen, Germany
Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Division of Genetic Epidemiology, Vitateq Biotechnology GmbH, University of Duisburg-Essen, D-45122 Essen, Germany

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Introduction The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most frequent endocrine disorders, found in up to 8% of women of reproductive age (1) . According to the Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group, the diagnosis is

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Sebastião Freitas de Medeiros Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Medical School, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil
Tropical Institute of Reproductive Medicine and Menopause, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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Cinthia Marenza Ormond Tropical Institute of Reproductive Medicine and Menopause, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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Matheus Antônio Souto de Medeiros Tropical Institute of Reproductive Medicine and Menopause, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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Nayara de Souza Santos Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Medical School, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil
Tropical Institute of Reproductive Medicine and Menopause, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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Camila Regis Banhara Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Medical School, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil
Tropical Institute of Reproductive Medicine and Menopause, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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Márcia Marly Winck Yamamoto Tropical Institute of Reproductive Medicine and Menopause, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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Introduction After standardization of the diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) the hyperandrogenemic phenotype has been found in nearly 80% of patients ( 1 , 2 ). These hyperandrogenemic patients may have their androgen

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Sebastião Freitas de Medeiros Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Medical School, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil
Tropical Institute of Reproductive Medicine, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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Márcia Marly Winck Yamamoto Tropical Institute of Reproductive Medicine, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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Matheus Antônio Souto de Medeiros Tropical Institute of Reproductive Medicine, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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Bruna Barcelo Barbosa Tropical Institute of Reproductive Medicine, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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José Maria Soares Junior Disciplina de Ginecologia, Departamento de Obstetrícia e Ginecologia, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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Edmund Chada Baracat Disciplina de Ginecologia, Departamento de Obstetrícia e Ginecologia, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has a prevalence ranging from 5 to 20% in women of reproductive age, depending on the population and criteria used for making a definitive diagnosis ( 1 , 2 ). The use of ultrasound may increase

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Xinyuan Zhang Laboratory of Genetic Disease and Perinatal Medicine, Key Laboratory of Birth Defects and Related Diseases of Women and Children, Ministry of Education, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China
School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China

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Suiyan Li School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China

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Hongwei Liu Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China

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Huai Bai Laboratory of Genetic Disease and Perinatal Medicine, Key Laboratory of Birth Defects and Related Diseases of Women and Children, Ministry of Education, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China

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Qingqing Liu Laboratory of Genetic Disease and Perinatal Medicine, Key Laboratory of Birth Defects and Related Diseases of Women and Children, Ministry of Education, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China

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Chunyi Yang Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China

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Ping Fan Laboratory of Genetic Disease and Perinatal Medicine, Key Laboratory of Birth Defects and Related Diseases of Women and Children, Ministry of Education, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China

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Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder that affects approximately 10–13% of women in their adolescent, reproductive, and postmenopausal years ( 1 ). PCOS is characterized by clinical and/or biochemical

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