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Bingbing Wang, Mayra Cruz Ithier, Nataliya Parobchak, Stacy M Yadava, Jay Schulkin and Todd Rosen

gestational diabetes mellitus ( 4 ). During pregnancy, the human placenta produces a large amount of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) ( 5 ). Maternal plasma CRH levels increase exponentially as pregnancy advances, peaking at the time of delivery. Women

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Kathryn L Gatford, Beverly S Muhlhausler, Lili Huang, Pamela Su-Lin Sim, Claire T Roberts, Johannes D Velhuis and Chen Chen

) secretion changes markedly during human pregnancy, as placental synthesis of variant GH in the syncytiotrophoblast increases circulating GH levels and progressively suppresses pulsatile pituitary secretion from mid-pregnancy ( 2 , 3 ). Placenta

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Kylie D Rock, Brian Horman, Allison L Phillips, Susan L McRitchie, Scott Watson, Jocelin Deese-Spruill, Dereje Jima, Susan Sumner, Heather M Stapleton and Heather B Patisaul

altered signaling between placenta and the developing brain. Throughout gestation, the placenta plays a critical role in regulating the fetal environment ( 13 ) including which chemicals are transferred to the fetus. The placenta also serves as a crucial

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Yao Ye, Aurelia Vattai, Nina Ditsch, Christina Kuhn, Martina Rahmeh, Sven Mahner, Myriam Ripphahn, Roland Immler, Markus Sperandio, Udo Jeschke and Viktoria von Schönfeldt

(PGE 2 ) has long been known as a potentiator of inflammation ( 4 ) and is the major fraction of prostaglandins produced by the placenta ( 5 ). PGE 2 can regulate the balance between Th1 and Th2 cell responses ( 6 ), modulate chemokine production ( 6

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Xiujuan Su, Yan Zhao, Zhijuan Cao, Yingying Yang, Tony Duan and Jing Hua

of a series of pregnancy complications and neonatal outcomes, including gestational diabetes mellitus, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, preterm delivery, placenta previa, placenta abruption and neonatal weight-related outcomes. Subjects and

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Ling Shan, Yingying Zhou, Shiqiao Peng, Xinyi Wang, Zhongyan Shan and Weiping Teng

uterus on days E0 and E5 and the weight of the placenta and embryos on day E13. We also calculated the number of implantation sites ( Fig. 2A ) and the absorptions ( Fig. 2B ). We used the ratio of number of absorptions and number of all the embryos

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Stavroula Stavrou, Michael Gratz, Eileen Tremmel, Christina Kuhn, Simone Hofmann, Helene Heidegger, Mina Peryanova, Kerstin Hermelink, Stefan Hutter, Bettina Toth, Doris Mayr, Sven Mahner, Udo Jeschke and Aurelia Vattai

placenta, brain, spinal cord, stomach, pancreatic β-cells and immune cells like macrophages, leukocytes and dendritic cells ( 15 , 16 , 17 ). Different compounds, including dopaminergic, adrenergic and serotonergic classes and a wide spectrum of agonists

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Michael J Gratz, Stavroula Stavrou, Christina Kuhn, Simone Hofmann, Kerstin Hermelink, Helene Heidegger, Stefan Hutter, Doris Mayr, Sven Mahner, Udo Jeschke and Aurelia Vattai

Introduction The D 2 -dopamine receptor (D2R) is expressed by the human placenta, and its expression increases with the gestational week, and it reaches a maximum at term ( 1 ). Dopamine plays a significant role in human placental endocrine

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Jonneke J Hollanders, Bibian van der Voorn, Noera Kieviet, Koert M Dolman, Yolanda B de Rijke, Erica L T van den Akker, Joost Rotteveel, Adriaan Honig and Martijn J J Finken

corticotropic-releasing hormone (CRH) production in the placenta, which – in contrast to the negative feedback loop between cortisol and CRH under non-pregnant conditions – establishes a positive feedback loop ( 6 ). This increase in cortisol concentration

Open access

Hathairat Rueangdetnarong, Rattanaporn Sekararithi, Thidarat Jaiwongkam, Sirinart Kumfu, Nipon Chattipakorn, Theera Tongsong and Phudit Jatavan

similar to those in the controls. The findings suggest that the placenta may have defensive mechanism to prevent oxidative stress in the fetus or neonate. Accordingly, maternal GDM is unlikely to place the neonate at a higher risk caused by maternal