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Adrian F Daly, David A Cano, Eva Venegas-Moreno, Patrick Petrossians, Elena Dios, Emilie Castermans, Alvaro Flores-Martínez, Vincent Bours, Albert Beckers and Alfonso Soto-Moreno

Introduction Clinically apparent pituitary adenomas are present in about 1:1000 of the general population in Europe; the most frequent sub-types are prolactinomas, non-secreting adenomas and somatotropinomas, while Cushing’s disease and

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Tao Mei, Jianhe Zhang, Liangfeng Wei, Xingfeng Qi, Yiming Ma, Xianhua Liu, Shaohua Chen, Songyuan Li, Jianwu Wu and Shousen Wang

Introduction Pituitary adenomas (PA) are among the most common intracranial tumors, accounting for 10–15% of primary intracranial tumors ( 1 ). It has been confirmed by positron emission tomography and tumor cell culture experiments that PA

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Paula Bruna Araujo, Leandro Kasuki, Carlos Henrique de Azeredo Lima, Liana Ogino, Aline H S Camacho, Leila Chimelli, Márta Korbonits and Monica R Gadelha

Introduction Although most pituitary adenomas occur sporadically, with only 5% of all cases being related to inherited syndromes ( 1 ), the mechanisms underlying pituitary tumorigenesis in a non-familial setting are poorly understood. Somatic

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Ali Abbara, Sophie Clarke, Pei Chia Eng, James Milburn, Devavrata Joshi, Alexander N Comninos, Rozana Ramli, Amrish Mehta, Brynmor Jones, Florian Wernig, Ramesh Nair, Nigel Mendoza, Amir H Sam, Emma Hatfield, Karim Meeran, Waljit S Dhillo and Niamh M Martin

apoplexy may occur in either functioning or non-functioning pituitary tumours, but a higher predominance in non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) is recognised ( 2 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 10 ). Patients with pre-existing pituitary adenoma have a 2–12% chance

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Adrian F Daly, Liliya Rostomyan, Daniela Betea, Jean-François Bonneville, Chiara Villa, Natalia S Pellegata, Beatrice Waser, Jean-Claude Reubi, Catherine Waeber Stephan, Emanuel Christ and Albert Beckers

syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), McCune–Albright Syndrome (MAS), Carney complex, and the emerging pheochromocytoma-paraganglioma-pituitary adenoma association (3PA) ( 7 ). Mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting

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Marko Stojanovic, Zida Wu, Craig E Stiles, Dragana Miljic, Ivan Soldatovic, Sandra Pekic, Mirjana Doknic, Milan Petakov, Vera Popovic, Christian Strasburger and Márta Korbonits

predispose to pituitary adenomas (PA) ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). AIP protein is highly conserved evolutionarily and widely distributed throughout the organism ( 4 ). Homozygous Aip deletion leads to embryonic lethality in both mammalian and invertebrate models ( 5

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Nidan Qiao

Introduction Cushing’s disease (CD) is a subtype of pituitary adenoma with hypercortisolism and presents a particular challenge to neurosurgeons. Transsphenoidal surgery (TS) has long been the standard of care for patients with CD ( 1 , 2

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Anna-Pauliina Iivonen, Johanna Känsäkoski, Atte Karppinen, Leena Kivipelto, Camilla Schalin-Jäntti, Auli Karhu and Taneli Raivio

inputs such as growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin as well as several peripheral hormones. GH-secreting pituitary adenomas, i.e. somatotropinomas, lead to acromegaly in adults and (acro-) gigantism in children and adolescents

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Prachi Bansal, Anurag Lila, Manjunath Goroshi, Swati Jadhav, Nilesh Lomte, Kunal Thakkar, Atul Goel, Abhidha Shah, Shilpa Sankhe, Naina Goel, Neelam Jaguste, Tushar Bandgar and Nalini Shah

Introduction Cushing’s disease (CD) is a state of cortisol excess, caused by an ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma. Although a rare disease with an annual incidence of 1.5 patients/million ( 1 ), it is associated with significant morbidity and

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Anastasia P Athanasoulia-Kaspar, Kathrin H Popp and Gunter Karl Stalla

non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) without history of dopaminergic treatment. The total prevalence of ICDs was significantly higher in patients with prolactinomas (24.6%-referring to the prevalence of one or more ICD) compared to the NFPA group