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Anping Su, Yanping Gong, Wenshuang Wu, Rixiang Gong, Zhihui Li and Jingqiang Zhu

overall costs of thyroid surgery, but also accounts for the main category of thyroidectomy-related claims ( 7 , 8 ). Hypoparathyroidism is caused by injury to the parathyroid glands from ligation of the blood supply, inadvertent or deliberate removal

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Felix Haglund, Gustaf Rosin, Inga-Lena Nilsson, C Christofer Juhlin, Ylva Pernow, Sophie Norenstedt, Andrii Dinets, Catharina Larsson, Johan Hartman and Anders Höög

secretion, DNA synthesis and gene transcription (21, 22, 23, 24) . Oestrogen signalling was suspected to affect parathyroid tumour development but initial results indicated that parathyroid glands in both normal and tumourous states lacked ERA expression

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Katherine U Gaynor, Irina V Grigorieva, Samantha M Mirczuk, Sian E Piret, Kreepa G Kooblall, Mark Stevenson, Karine Rizzoti, Michael R Bowl, M Andrew Nesbit, Paul T Christie, William D Fraser, Tertius Hough, Michael P Whyte, Robin Lovell-Badge and Rajesh V Thakker

#146200 and %307700) ( 2 ). These genetic abnormalities may result in defects in PTH itself, parathyroid gland development, or parathyroid gland function. For example, mutations in PTH cause a lack of functional PTH protein ( 3 ), mutations in the

Open access

Elena Pardi, Stefano Mariotti, Natalia S Pellegata, Katiuscia Benfini, Simona Borsari, Federica Saponaro, Liborio Torregrossa, Antonello Cappai, Chiara Satta, Marco Mastinu, Claudio Marcocci and Filomena Cetani

under high-power magnification (×20) were chosen. In each experiment, adjacent normal parenchyma and/or infiltrating lymphocytes served as an internal positive control. Two specimens of normal parathyroid gland, inadvertently removed from normocalcemic

Open access

Maria Mizamtsidi, Constantinos Nastos, George Mastorakos, Roberto Dina, Ioannis Vassiliou, Maria Gazouli and Fausto Palazzo

Introduction Hyperparathyroidism is characterized by hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) from the parathyroid glands. According to the cause of hypersecretion, hyperparathyroidism can be classified as primary, secondary or tertiary

Open access

Bekir Cakir, F Neslihan Cuhaci Seyrek, Oya Topaloglu, Didem Ozdemir, Ahmet Dirikoc, Cevdet Aydin, Sefika Burcak Polat, Berna Evranos Ogmen, Ali Abbas Tam, Husniye Baser, Aylin Kilic Yazgan, Mehmet Kilic, Afra Alkan and Reyhan Ersoy

technetium-99m-sestamibi scintigraphy (MIBI) with or without single photon emission CT ( 2 , 8 , 9 , 10 ). Although normal parathyroid glands are not visible through US ( 11 ), pathological parathyroid tissues become visible due to the enlargement or

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Jeremy Turner, Neil Gittoes, Peter Selby and the Society for Endocrinology Clinical Committee

spasm Laryngospasm ECG changes (prolonged QT interval) and arrhythmia Seizure Potential causes The most common cause of acute symptomatic hypocalcaemia in hospital practice is disruption of parathyroid gland function due to total

Open access

Cristina Lamas, Elena Navarro, Anna Casterás, Paloma Portillo, Victoria Alcázar, María Calatayud, Cristina Álvarez-Escolá, Julia Sastre, Evangelina Boix, Lluis Forga, Almudena Vicente, Josep Oriola, Jordi Mesa and Nuria Valdés

transcervical thymectomy is also recommended, to remove a putative intrathymic parathyroid gland and to prevent the development of a subsequent thymic carcinoid tumor. Controversies persist regarding the role of presurgical localization studies or the ideal

Open access

A Chinoy, M Skae, A Babiker, D Kendall, M Z Mughal and R Padidela

Introduction Hypoparathyroidism (HPT) is the partial or complete reduction of parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion from the parathyroid glands. PTH stimulates 1-alpha-hydroxylase enzyme to produce 1,25(OH) 2 -vitamin D, which facilitates active

Open access

Laura J Reid, Bala Muthukrishnan, Dilip Patel, Mike S Crane, Murat Akyol, Andrew Thomson, Jonathan R Seckl and Fraser W Gibb

imaging modalities were assessed in terms of ability to correctly lateralise disease and also to identify the precise location (i.e. right/left, superior/inferior or ectopic). Pathology Information on the location of the diseased parathyroid gland(s