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Angelica Amorim Amato, Hailey Brit Wheeler, and Bruce Blumberg

Introduction The incidence of obesity around the world has tripled since the 1970s, affecting more than 650 million people ( 1 ). Within the United States alone, 39.8% of adults (93.3 million) aged 20 and over, along with 18.5% (41 million) of

Open access

Jia Liu, Lin Zhang, Jing Fu, Qiu Wang, and Guang Wang

Introduction The global epidemic of obesity remains a growing public health concern owing to its short- and long-term adverse health sequelae ( 1 , 2 ). Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that obesity is associated with increased risk

Open access

Fang Lv, Xiaoling Cai, Chu Lin, Tianpei Hong, Xiaomei Zhang, Zhufeng Wang, Huifang Xing, Guizhi Zong, Juming Lu, Xiaohui Guo, Jing Wu, Leili Gao, Xianghai Zhou, Xueyao Han, and Linong Ji

Introduction It was well-known that the prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing worldwide. It was reported that 39% of adults aged more than 18 years were overweight, and about 13% of the world’s adult population were obese in 2016

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Anru Wang, Xueqin Yan, Cai Zhang, Caiqi Du, Wenjun Long, Di Zhan, and Xiaoping Luo

Introduction The worldwide prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents has increased in past years ( 1 ). Obesity is associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and long-term cardiovascular complications

Open access

Franca Genest, Michael Schneider, Andreas Zehnder, Dominik Lieberoth-Leden, and Lothar Seefried

reported to be around 1–2% and 3%, respectively in men >60 years. Furthermore, a combination of sarcopenia with osteoporosis or obesity was assumed to worsen that effect ( 5 , 6 ). The combination of sarcopenia and low BMD reflected in the term

Open access

Martijn J J Finken, Aleid J G Wirix, Ines A von Rosenstiel-Jadoul, Bibian van der Voorn, Mai J M Chinapaw, Michaela F Hartmann, Joana E Kist-van Holthe, Stefan A Wudy, and Joost Rotteveel

Introduction Rates of childhood obesity have steeply increased over the past decades ( 1 ). Nowadays, an estimated number of 107.7 million children suffer from obesity worldwide ( 1 ), and approximately 20% of them progress to hypertension ( 2

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M Jensterle, A Podbregar, K Goricar, N Gregoric, and A Janez

Introduction Obesity causes functional hypogonadism (FH) due to suppression of hypothalamus-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis that is potentially reversible ( 1 ). Recent evidence suggests that weight reduction (WR) with lifestyle measures (LSMs

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Mohamed Asrih, Flore Sinturel, Richard Dubos, Idris Guessous, Zoltan Pataky, Charna Dibner, François R Jornayvaz, and Karim Gariani

Introduction Obesity is rapidly increasing worldwide despite it being a major health concern ( 1 ). Excess weight represents a hazardous condition leading to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its complications, mainly cardiovascular

Open access

Frederique Van de Velde, Marlies Bekaert, Anja Geerts, Anne Hoorens, Arsène-Hélène Batens, Samyah Shadid, Margriet Ouwens, Yves Van Nieuwenhove, and Bruno Lapauw

Introduction An important complication of obesity is the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which covers a broad histological spectrum from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and can progress to

Open access

Nannan Bian, Xiaomeng Sun, Biao Zhou, Lin Zhang, Qiu Wang, Yu An, Xiaohui Li, Yinhui Li, Jia Liu, Hua Meng, and Guang Wang

Introduction The morbidity of overweight and obesity has increased globally ( 1 ). During 2013–2014 in the United States, obesity was 40.4% among women and 35% among men. The corresponding incidences for morbid obesity were 9.9% for women and