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Gareth Leng

endocrinology is neuroendocrinology, born of Geoffrey Harris’ insights in the 1950s. The birth of neuroendocrinology In the late 1950s, it was ‘well established’ that in man and other animals that ovulated spontaneously, ovulation is controlled by the

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Fernando Aprile-Garcia, María Antunica-Noguerol, Maia Ludmila Budziñski, Ana C Liberman and Eduardo Arzt

. ( doi:10.1038/nrn2297 ). 10 Besedovsky HO del Rey A . Immune–neuroendocrine circuits: integrative role of cytokines . Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology 1992 13 61 – 94 . 11 De Kloet ER Vreugdenhil E Oitzl MS Joels M . Brain corticosteroid receptor

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Julie M Silverstein

acromegaly . Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2004 89 667 – 674 . ( doi:10.1210/jc.2003-031199 ). 13 Webb SM . Quality of life in acromegaly . Neuroendocrinology 2006 83 224 – 229 . ( doi:10.1159/000095532 ). 14 Szczesniak D

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Maria Cristina De Martino, Richard A Feelders, Claudia Pivonello, Chiara Simeoli, Fortuna Papa, Annamaria Colao, Rosario Pivonello and Leo J Hofland

. Neuroendocrinology 2010 28 – 34 . ( ) 11 Robbins HL Hague A . The PI3K/Akt pathway in tumors of endocrine tissues . Frontiers in Endocrinology 2015 188 . ( ) 12 Bahrami A

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Logan Mills, Panagiotis Drymousis, Yogesh Vashist, Christoph Burdelski, Andreas Prachalias, Parthi Srinivasan, Krishna Menon, Corina Cotoi, Saboor Khan, Judith Cave, Thomas Armstrong, Martin O Weickert, Jakob Izbicki, Joerg Schrader, Andreja Frilling, John K Ramage and Raj Srirajaskanthan

non-functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Neuroendocrinology 2016 103 153 – 171 . ( doi:10.1159/000443171 ) 26742109 10.1159/000443171 2 Partelli S Cirocchi R Crippa S Cardinali L Fendrich V Bartsch DK Falcon M. Systematic review of

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Bilal B Mughal, Jean-Baptiste Fini and Barbara A Demeneix

This review covers recent findings on the main categories of thyroid hormone–disrupting chemicals and their effects on brain development. We draw mostly on epidemiological and experimental data published in the last decade. For each chemical class considered, we deal with not only the thyroid hormone–disrupting effects but also briefly mention the main mechanisms by which the same chemicals could modify estrogen and/or androgen signalling, thereby exacerbating adverse effects on endocrine-dependent developmental programmes. Further, we emphasize recent data showing how maternal thyroid hormone signalling during early pregnancy affects not only offspring IQ, but also neurodevelopmental disease risk. These recent findings add to established knowledge on the crucial importance of iodine and thyroid hormone for optimal brain development. We propose that prenatal exposure to mixtures of thyroid hormone–disrupting chemicals provides a plausible biological mechanism contributing to current increases in the incidence of neurodevelopmental disease and IQ loss.

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Wouter W de Herder

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was first awarded in 1901. Since then, the Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine, Chemistry and Physics have been awarded to at least 33 distinguished researchers who were directly or indirectly involved in research into the field of endocrinology. This paper reflects on the life histories, careers and achievements of 11 of them: Frederick G Banting, Roger Guillemin, Philip S Hench, Bernardo A Houssay, Edward C Kendall, E Theodor Kocher, John J R Macleod, Tadeus Reichstein, Andrew V Schally, Earl W Sutherland, Jr and Rosalyn Yalow. All were eminent scientists, distinguished lecturers and winners of many prizes and awards.

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Elena Galazzi, Paolo Duminuco, Mirella Moro, Fabiana Guizzardi, Nicoletta Marazzi, Alessandro Sartorio, Sabrina Avignone, Marco Bonomi, Luca Persani and Maria Teresa Bonati

Ulnar-mammary syndrome (UMS) is characterized by ulnar defects, and nipple or apocrine gland hypoplasia, caused by TBX3 haploinsufficiency. Signs of hypogonadism were repeatedly reported, but the mechanisms remain elusive. We aim to assess the origin of hypogonadism in two families with UMS. UMS was suspected in two unrelated probands referred to an academic center with delayed puberty because of the evident ulnar ray and breast defects in their parents. Clinical, biochemical and genetic investigations proved the existence of congenital normosmic IHH (nIHH) associated with pituitary hypoplasia in the two probands who were heterozygous for novel TBX3 pathogenic variants. The mutations co-segregated with delayed puberty, midline defects (nose, teeth and tongue anomalies) and other variable features of UMS in the two families (absent axillary hairs and nipple hypoplasia, asymmetrical features including unilateral ulnar or renal abnormalities). The combined analysis of these findings and of the previous UMS reports showed delayed puberty and other signs of hypogonadism in 79 and 37% of UMS males, respectively. Proband 1 was followed up to adulthood with persistence of nIHH. In conclusion, UMS should be suspected in patients with delayed puberty and midline defects, including pituitary hypoplasia, in the presence of mild cues for TBX3 mutation, even in the absence of limb malformations. In addition, TBX3 should be included among candidate genes for congenital nIHH.

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Sara Storvall, Helena Leijon, Eeva Ryhänen, Johanna Louhimo, Caj Haglund, Camilla Schalin-Jäntti and Johanna Arola

center . Modern Pathology 2019 32 1082 – 1094 . ( ) 10.1038/s41379-019-0252-6 19 Theodoropoulou M Stalla GK . Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology somatostatin receptors: from signaling to clinical

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I Azzam, S Gilad, R Limor, N Stern and Y Greenman

. Journal of Neuroendocrinology 2015 27 424 – 434 . ( doi:10.1111/jne.12236 ) 10.1111/jne.12236 25377898 12 Maruna P Gürlich R Rosická M. Ghrelin as an acute-phase reactant during postoperative stress response . Hormone and Metabolic