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Katherine Van Loon, Li Zhang, Jennifer Keiser, Cendy Carrasco, Katherine Glass, Maria-Teresa Ramirez, Sarah Bobiak, Eric K Nakakura, Alan P Venook, Manisha H Shah, and Emily K Bergsland

Introduction Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) arise from the many cells of the diffuse endocrine system, which possess unique functions and the potential for hormone production. As such, NETs represent a heterogeneous group of tumors with variable

Open access

Matteo Scopel, Eugenio De Carlo, Francesca Bergamo, Sabina Murgioni, Riccardo Carandina, Anna Rita Cervino, Marta Burei, Federica Vianello, Vittorina Zagonel, Matteo Fassan, and Roberto Vettor

Introduction Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a heterogeneous family of neoplasms that originate from cells belonging to the widespread neuroendocrine system. These cells appear to be ubiquitous in the human body, but the main sites are the

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Elham Barazeghi, Per Hellman, Gunnar Westin, and Peter Stålberg

Introduction Small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) arise from enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract, which are small and slow-growing (Ki67 proliferation index is often <2%) tumors with annual incidence of 1 per 100

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Hanbaro Kim, Ki Byung Song, Dae Wook Hwang, Jae Hoon Lee, Shadi Alshammary, and Song Cheol Kim

Introduction Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs), also known as islet cell tumors, are rare neoplasms arising from the endocrine pancreas, with a reported incidence of <1 per 100,000 persons per year ( 1 , 2 ). However, the incidence of

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Olof Joakim Pettersson, Katarzyna Fröss-Baron, Joakim Crona, and Anders Sundin

Introduction Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors comprise a variety of tumors, originating from stem cells in the gastrointestinal canal and pancreatic islets. An incidence of approximately 5 per 100,000 person-years is often

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R C S van Adrichem, L J Hofland, R A Feelders, M C De Martino, P M van Koetsveld, C H J van Eijck, R R de Krijger, D M Sprij-Mooij, J A M J L Janssen, and W W de Herder

Introduction Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP NETs) are rare and heterogeneous tumors which may vary according to their biological, functional, and clinical behavior (1) . Chromogranin A (CgA) and the Ki-67 proliferation index are

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Kazhan Mollazadegan, Britt Skogseid, Johan Botling, Tobias Åkerström, Barbro Eriksson, Staffan Welin, Anders Sundin, and Joakim Crona

grading of panNENs ( 3 ), high-grade neoplasms were separated into two categories: well-differentiated (WD) pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor grade 3 (panNET-G3) and poorly differentiated (PD) NEC ( 4 ). PanNET-G3 frequently harbors mutations in MEN1 and

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Chao-bin He, Yu Zhang, Zhi-yuan Cai, and Xiao-jun Lin

Introduction Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are rare and represent 1.3 to 10.0% of all pancreatic tumors. The annual incidence of PNET is around 3.65/10,000 people and it has been increasing over the last decades ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). The

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Roxanne C S van Adrichem, Aart Jan van der Lely, Martin Huisman, Piet Kramer, Richard A Feelders, Patric J D Delhanty, and Wouter W de Herder

). Neoplastic effects of ghrelin have been reported as well including: cell proliferation, cell migration, cell invasion, inflammation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis ( 17 , 18 , 19 ). Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are rare tumors characterized by the

Open access

Anna Malczewska, Magdalena Witkowska, Karolina Makulik, Agnes Bocian, Agata Walter, Joanna Pilch-Kowalczyk, Wojciech Zajęcki, Lisa Bodei, Kjell Oberg, and Beata Kos-Kudła

Introduction Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) have increased in incidence with small intestine NETs (SINETs) being the most common and pancreatic NETs (PNETs), the third most common among gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) NETs per the SEER database