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Magdalene K Montgomery and Nigel Turner

, mitochondrial function (and mitochondrial dysfunction) plays an important role in metabolic health and cellular fate. Mitochondrial function can be defined in a number of different ways, but for the purpose of this review we have largely focussed on the role of

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Jakob Høgild Langdahl, Anja Lisbeth Frederiksen, John Vissing, Morten Frost, Knud Bonnet Yderstræde and Per Heden Andersen

severity of mitochondrial dysfunction at the cellular level ( 11 , 12 ). In skeletal muscle, heteroplasmy is inversely correlated to oxidative capacity in patients with mitochondrial myopathy ( 13 ). Additionally, the level of heteroplasmy in blood and

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Chanyang Kim and Seungjoon Park

dopaminergic neurodegeneration are not still elucidated, numerous lines of evidence indicate that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis play an important role in the pathogenesis of PD ( 3 , 4 ). Some neurotoxins, such as 1-methyl-4

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Yiqiong Ma, Zhaowei Chen, Yu Tao, Jili Zhu, Hongxia Yang, Wei Liang and Guohua Ding

to abnormal mitochondrial biosynthesis, which causes a reduction in ATP synthesis and an increase in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) ( 8 , 9 ); therefore, mitochondrial dysfunction occurs before proteinuria and renal pathology ( 10

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Tingting Shu, Zhigang Lv, Yuchun Xie, Junming Tang and Xuhua Mao

inflammatory response, oxidative stress ( 12 ) and mitochondrial dysfunction pathways ( 13 ), which affect glucose metabolism in peripheral tissues ( 5 ). To date, there have been few reports describing the role of hepcidin in pancreatic β-cells. Our previous

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Elisabet Einarsdottir, Minna Pekkinen, Kaarel Krjutškov, Shintaro Katayama, Juha Kere, Outi Mäkitie and Heli Viljakainen

activity in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes ( 23 , 24 , 25 ). In fact, mitochondrial dysfunction is suggested to precede the development of insulin resistance ( 26 , 27 ). In a recent metabolomics study

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Hugo R Ramos, Andreas L Birkenfeld and Adolfo J de Bold

culture studies show that cGMP restores glucose and insulin induced mitochondrial dysfunction in cultured C2C12 myotubes (114) , nitric oxide signalling via cGMP mediates activation of PGC-1α, and mitochondrial biogenesis in various murine tissues (115

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Selina Mäkinen, Yen H Nguyen, Paulina Skrobuk and Heikki A Koistinen

.2010 ) 26 Kwon B Lee H-K Querfurth HW. Oleate prevents palmitate-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, insulin resistance and inflammatory signaling in neuronal cells . Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA): Molecular Cell Research 2014 1843

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Carina Hasenoehrl, Gert Schwach, Nassim Ghaffari-Tabrizi-Wizsy, Robert Fuchs, Nadine Kretschmer, Rudolf Bauer and Roswitha Pfragner

.1006/bbrc.1995.1287 ) 27 Wiench B Eichhorn T Paulsen M Efferth T. Shikonin directly targets mitochondria and causes mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer cells . Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012 2012 726025

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T S Nilsen, L Thorsen, C Kirkegaard, I Ugelstad, S D Fosså and T Raastad

mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in muscle protein degradation, this might be one of the mechanisms behind ADT-induced loss of muscle mass ( 8 , 9 ). In skeletal muscle, the ubiquitin proteasome system is one of the major sites for protein breakdown, where