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Lilit Egshatyan, Daria Kashtanova, Anna Popenko, Olga Tkacheva, Alexander Tyakht, Dmitry Alexeev, Natalia Karamnova, Elena Kostryukova, Vladislav Babenko, Maria Vakhitova and Sergey Boytsov

592 million by 2035 (5) . Recently, it has been established that the human gut microbiota (GM) plays key roles in health maintenance. The GM is altered in the development of chronic inflammation, T2DM, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and many other

Open access

Ling Zhou, Zhexin Ni, Wen Cheng, Jin Yu, Shuai Sun, Dongxia Zhai, Chaoqin Yu and Zailong Cai

IR, promoting the development of PCOS ( 2 ). The interrelation between gut microbiota and PCOS is attracting increased attention. Compared with healthy women, Lindheim et al . ( 3 ) found that the abundance of ML615J-28 and 124-7 from phylum

Open access

Stavroula A Paschou, Nektaria Papadopoulou-Marketou, George P Chrousos and Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein

 1. Viruses (rubella, enteroviruses)  2. Diet (cow’s milk, cereals, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D)  3. Gut microbiota D. Immunologic factors  1. Immune tolerance (central, peripheral, Tregs)  2. Cellular immunity

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Patricia Iozzo and Maria Angela Guzzardi

studies have shown differences in microbiota composition between lean and obese individuals ( 101 , 102 , 103 ). Seminal studies have produced first evidence in human Alzheimer’s pathology ( 104 , 105 ). In one animal study in which brain glucose

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Aaron Lerner, Patricia Jeremias and Torsten Matthias

) not less important is the transcriptomic, proteinomic and the metabolomics changes induced by the gut microbes, being direct messengers between the bugs and us. Changes in microbiota and short chain fatty acids production are clearly related to the

Open access

Emmi Naskali, Katja Dettmer, Peter J Oefner, Pedro A B Pereira, Kai Krohn, Petri Auvinen, Annamari Ranki and Nicolas Kluger

Finnish APECED patients and compared the results with the presence of TPH-1, TPH-2 and AADC Aabs and with clinical manifestations such as GI dysfunction and depressive symptoms. We also compared the gut microbiota of APECED patients against that of healthy

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Annieke C G van Baar, Andrei Prodan, Camilla D Wahlgren, Steen S Poulsen, Filip K Knop, Albert K Groen, Jacques J Bergman, Max Nieuwdorp and Evgeni Levin

RS. Improvement of insulin sensitivity after lean donor fecal microbiota transplantation in metabolic syndrome subjects is associated with baseline intestinal microbiota composition . Cell Metabolism 2017 26 611.e6 – 619.e6 . ( https

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Mengxue Yang, Bowen Sun, Jianhui Li, Bo Yang, Jie Xu, Xue Zhou, Jie Yu, Xuan Zhang, Qun Zhang, Shan Zhou and Xiaohua Sun

interactions between the thyroid gland and the intestinal flora have been reported only rarely. Although Zhou et al. found that alterations in the diversity and similarity of the gut microbiota occurred in hyperthyroid patients compared with healthy

Open access

Li Jing and Wang Chengji

. ( https://doi.org/10.1370/afm.1406 ) 10.1370/afm.1406 23149533 20 Monda V Villano I Messina A Valenzano A Esposito T Moscatelli F Viggiano A Cibelli G Chieffi S Monda M , Exercise modifies the gut microbiota with positive health effects . Oxidative

Open access

Roberto Cosimo Melcangi, Livio Casarini, Marco Marino, Daniele Santi, Samantha Sperduti, Silvia Giatti, Silvia Diviccaro, Maria Grimoldi, Donatella Caruso, Guido Cavaletti and Manuela Simoni

and gut microbiota composition ( 28 ). A possible hypothesis for the persistent side effects may be epigenetic modifications occurring in PFS patients. Indeed, downregulation and hypermethylation of 5α-R were observed in the rodent nervous system and