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Min Li, Ying Chen, Jingjing Jiang, Yan Lu, Zhiyi Song, Shengjie Zhang, Chao Sun, Hao Ying, Xiaofang Fan, Yuping Song, Jialin Yang and Lin Zhao

Introduction Thyroid hormone (TH) is required for both normal development and metabolism ( 1 , 2 ), acting through its two receptor isoforms, α and β. TRα is mainly expressed in the skeletal muscle, adipose tissue and heart, whereas TRβ is

Open access

Karim Gariani, Geneviève Drifte, Irène Dunn-Siegrist, Jérôme Pugin and François R Jornayvaz

-activated receptor α (PPARα) and PPARγ respectively (1, 6) . FGF21 has emerged as a key regulator in the metabolism of glucose and lipids (6, 7, 8) . FGF21 may have a potential role as a therapeutic agent for conditions associated with insulin resistance as it has

Open access

L Johnsen, N B Lyckegaard, P Khanal, B Quistorff, K Raun and M O Nielsen

development and maturation, in regulation of metabolism through stimulation of mitochondrial oxygen consumption, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and it affects functional development of the nervous and cardiovascular systems ( 13 , 14 ). As summarized in

Open access

Patricia Iozzo and Maria Angela Guzzardi

( 24 , 25 ). Imaging of the glucose analog 18 F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 FDG) by positron emission tomography (PET) is the gold standard for the assessment of cerebral glucose metabolism in vivo . In this manuscript, we review evidence on

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Stephen A Martin, Kenneth A Philbrick, Carmen P Wong, Dawn A Olson, Adam J Branscum, Donald B Jump, Charles K Marik, Jonathan M DenHerder, Jennifer L Sargent, Russell T Turner and Urszula T Iwaniec

particular, are known modulators of bone metabolism ( 14 ). Consequently, female and male mice exhibit sexually dimorphic trajectories of skeletal growth and changes in morphology throughout the lifespan ( 4 ). While premature cancellous bone loss occurs in

Open access

Nese Cinar and Alper Gurlek

obesity, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular complications, by promoting a low-grade WAT inflammation (1, 2) . Thyroid hormones are involved in the regulation of body metabolism. Their effects include the stimulation of resting

Open access

Janaína Felix Braga, Daniela Ravizzoni Dartora, Natalia Alenina, Michael Bader and Robson Augusto Souza Santos

Introduction Besides its role in the regulation of blood pressure and the cardiovascular system, the renin–angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in the control of glucose and lipid metabolism ( 1 ). Moreover, it is a determinant in

Open access

Yiqiong Ma, Zhaowei Chen, Yu Tao, Jili Zhu, Hongxia Yang, Wei Liang and Guohua Ding

ROS levels are mainly generated by the podocytes ( 19 ). In DN patients, urinary exosomes and renal biopsy metabolomics analysis revealed that the expression of multiple regulatory factors associated with mitochondrial metabolism were decreased, such

Open access

Athanasios D Anastasilakis, Marina Tsoli, Gregory Kaltsas and Polyzois Makras

lesional and systemic alterations of factors involved in bone metabolism, and the potential therapeutic implications for both bone and multisystem LCH management. LCH pathogenesis LCH is characterized by clonal proliferation and dissemination of

Open access

Mohammed S Albreiki, Benita Middleton and Shelagh M Hampton

and glucose metabolism, such as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase ( 7 , 8 ). Therefore, disruption of circadian coordination may be manifested by endocrine imbalances ( 9 ), incidence of obesity ( 10 ) and type 2 diabetes ( 11 , 12 ). This raises a