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Cornelia Then, Holger Then, Andreas Lechner, Cornelia Huth, Christa Meisinger, Margit Heier, Annette Peters, Wolfgang Koenig, Wolfgang Rathmann, Christian Herder, Michael Roden, Jürgen Scherberich and Jochen Seissler

Introduction The metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular and renal complications, and chronic renal failure in metabolic syndrome may progress to end-stage renal disease ( 1 , 2 ). Kidney pathophysiological

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Maria Lola Evia-Viscarra, Edel Rafael Rodea-Montero, Evelia Apolinar-Jiménez and Silvia Quintana-Vargas

associated with long periods of physical incapacity and early mortality (3) . The risk factors for developing CVD and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in adults are encompassed by the term ‘metabolic syndrome’ (MS) (4) , which is diagnosed based on the

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Sandra N Slagter, Robert P van Waateringe, André P van Beek, Melanie M van der Klauw, Bruce H R Wolffenbuttel and Jana V van Vliet-Ostaptchouk

Introduction The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is nowadays frequently used to identify individuals at higher risk for future type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) ( 1 ). Recognized metabolic risk components are abdominal obesity

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Annieke C G van Baar, Andrei Prodan, Camilla D Wahlgren, Steen S Poulsen, Filip K Knop, Albert K Groen, Jacques J Bergman, Max Nieuwdorp and Evgeni Levin

, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes ( 1 ). The gut incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), produced by enteroendocrine L cells and K cells, respectively, are intimately involved in

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Johan Verhelst, Anders F Mattsson, Cecilia Camacho-Hübner, Anton Luger and Roger Abs

Introduction It is now well-recognized that patients with adult-onset growth hormone deficiency (AO-GHD), apart from experiencing a poor quality of life (QoL), present with an increased risk of developing a metabolic syndrome (MetS) ( 1 , 2

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N Bergmann, F Gyntelberg and J Faber

Introduction The metabolic syndrome (MES) is a cluster of risk factors including male adiposity, dyslipidemia, reduced glucose tolerance and hypertension. MES is highly prevalent and increasing in most parts of the world (1) . A meta-analysis has

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Antonia Ertelt, Ann-Kristin Barton, Robert R Schmitz and Heidrun Gehlen

Introduction Metabolic syndrome in humans was first described almost 50 years ago by Camus (1) , but there was little interest in this disease until the late 1980s, when it gained new attention as ‘syndrome X’ or ‘the deadly quartet’ (2, 3

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Yael Sofer, Nava Nevo, Michal Vechoropoulos, Gabi Shefer, Etty Osher, Nathan Landis, Karen Tordjman, Geoffrey L Hammond and Naftali Stern

levels and HbA1c ( 11 , 13 ). Hypoandrogenism in men and hyperandrogenism in women (e.g., the polycystic ovary syndrome) have been linked to insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome ( 13 , 14 ). In one report, SHBG levels predicted the development

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Angelo Maria Patti, Kalliopi Pafili, Nikolaos Papanas and Manfredi Rizzo

development of gestational diabetes (GDM) cases ( 1 ). Epidemiological evidence has consistently shown that among mothers with prior history of GDM, 30–84% of them had GDM recurrence in subsequent pregnancies ( 2 ), 20–40% developed metabolic syndrome (MetS

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Eliana Piantanida, Daniela Gallo, Giovanni Veronesi, Eugenia Dozio, Eugenia Trotti, Adriana Lai, Silvia Ippolito, Jessica Sabatino, Maria Laura Tanda, Antonio Toniolo, Marco Ferrario and Luigi Bartalena

calcium along with an increase in adipocyte fatty acid synthase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activities and lipolysis inhibition ( 28 ). Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a multifactorial condition, having central obesity as a causative factor