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Daiki Kobayashi, Nagato Kuriyama, Keita Hirano, Osamu Takahashi and Hiroshi Noto

Background

The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference in malignancy incidence by evaluating time-dependent HbA1c levels among diabetic patients in a longitudinal study.

Methods

We conducted a retrospective longitudinal study at large academic hospital, Tokyo, Japan, from 2006 to 2016. We included all diabetic patients who were 50 years or older and who underwent health check-ups at the Center for Preventive Medicine. Those patients with a prior history of malignancies were excluded. We categorized patients into five groups on the basis of HbA1c measurements: <5.4, 5.5–6.4, 6.5–7.4, 7.5–8.5, >8.5%. Our primary outcome was the development of any types of malignancy. Longitudinal analyses by a mixed effect model with time-dependent HbA1c levels were applied in order to take into account fluctuations in HbA1c levels within the same patient.

Results

In total, 2729 participants were included in this study, where the mean age was 62.6 (standard deviation (s.d.): 7.8) and 2031 (74.4%) were male. The mean disease duration of diabetes was 7.6 (s.d.: 7.6) years, and 1688 (61.8%) were prescribed medications. Median follow-up was 1443.5 (interquartile range (IQR): 2508) days and 376 (13.8%) developed malignancies. Compared to the reference range of HbA1c (5.5–6.4%), the odds ratios for developing malignancies among the other HbA1c level groups were similar and not statistically different (OR: 0.98, 95% CI:0.31–3.15 (for HbA1c <5.4%); OR: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.69–1.12 (for HbA1c 6.5–7.4%); OR: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.64–1.22 (for HbA1c 7.5–8.4%); OR 1.07, 95% CI: 0.70–1.66 (for HbA1c >8.5%)).

Conclusion

In our study, there was no association between glycemic control and the development of future malignancies. Compared to very strictly controlled HbA1c levels, both excessive control and good or bad control had a statistically similar risk of developing malignancies.

Open access

C Sui, Q He, R Du, D Zhang, F Li, G Dionigi, N Liang and H Sun

Purpose

This study examined the clinicopathological characteristics of 6279 N1 differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients who underwent operations in our center.

Methods

This was a retrospective longitudinal analysis. We categorized the DTC patients on the basis of various lymph node (LN) characteristics. Logistic regression models and multiple linear regression models were used for the correlation analysis.

Results

A total of 3693 (58.8%) N1a patients and 2586 (41.2%) N1b patients were included. Patients with N1b disease had larger metastatic foci (0.5 vs 0.15 cm), a greater number of metastatic LNs (5 vs 2), a greater number of dissected LNs (25 vs 7), and a smaller lymph node ratio (NR, number of positive LNs/number of sampled LNs) (23.1% vs 28.6%) than patients in stage N1a. Comparing the clinicopathological features, we found that male, increased tumor size, multifocality, and thyroiditis increased the risk of stage N1b disease (P < 0.05). Sex, multifocality, capsular infiltration, and tumor size were associated with the size of the metastatic LNs (P < 0.05). Sex, capsular infiltration, and nodular goiter were associated with the NR (P < 0.05). Female sex, tumor located in inferior lobe, maximal tumor diameter (MTD) < 1 cm, and nodular goiter were independent predictors for skip metastases (P < 0.05). MTD > 1 cm, central neck metastasis and age were independent predictors for bilateral lateral neck metastasis (BLNM) (P < 0.05).

Conclusion

The LN characteristics of stage N1a and N1b disease were associated with significantly different features, such as sex, tumor size, multifocality, capsular infiltration, and nodular goiter.

Open access

Cornelia Then, Holger Then, Andreas Lechner, Cornelia Huth, Christa Meisinger, Margit Heier, Annette Peters, Wolfgang Koenig, Wolfgang Rathmann, Christian Herder, Michael Roden, Jürgen Scherberich and Jochen Seissler

metabolic syndrome in the longitudinal analysis Baseline sUmod was not associated with new-onset metabolic syndrome or incidence of any component of the metabolic syndrome after the follow-up time of 6.5 ± 0.3 years ( Table 5 ). Furthermore, sUmod was not

Open access

Kristin Ottarsdottir, Anna G Nilsson, Margareta Hellgren, Ulf Lindblad and Bledar Daka

, 1282 men were included in the baseline study. All participants with valid values in all variables used as covariates in the model were included (baseline N  = 1282, follow-up N  = 546, longitudinal analysis N  = 578) ( Fig. 1 ). The mean age at

Open access

Julie Refardt, Clara Odilia Sailer, Bettina Winzeler, Matthias Johannes Betz, Irina Chifu, Ingeborg Schnyder, Martin Fassnacht, Wiebke Fenske, Mirjam Christ-Crain and for the CODDI-Investigators

obesity, metabolic syndrome, and nonalcoholic fatty liver in children: a longitudinal analysis . Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2012 97 2143 – 2150 . (doi:10.1210/jc.2012-1221) 10 Nakanishi K Nishida M Harada M Ohama T Kawada N

Open access

C E Higham, A Olsson-Brown, P Carroll, T Cooksley, J Larkin, P Lorigan, D Morganstein, P J Trainer and the Society for Endocrinology Clinical Committee

. Ipilimumab-induced hypophysitis: a detailed longitudinal analysis in a large cohort of patients with metastatic melanoma . Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2014 99 4078 – 4085 . ( https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2014-2306 ) 10.1210/jc.2014

Open access

Mirjana Kocova, Vesna Janevska and Violeta Anastasovska

Reisch N Rottenkolber M Greifenstein A Krone N Schmidt H Reincke M Schwartz HP Beuschlein F . Testicular adrenal rest tumors develop independently of long-term disease control: a longitudinal analysis of 50 adult men with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

Open access

Shenglong Le, Leiting Xu, Moritz Schumann, Na Wu, Timo Törmäkangas, Markku Alén, Sulin Cheng and Petri Wiklund

peripubertal children. Our study has both strengths and limitations. The longitudinal analysis was conducted in a homogenous nationally representative cohort of healthy females followed from childhood across puberty into early adulthood with several follow

Open access

Robert Rapaport, Peter A Lee, Judith L Ross, Paul Saenger, Vlady Ostrow and Giuseppe Piccoli

: longitudinal analysis of growth-hormone-naive patients enrolled in the NordiNet(R) International Outcome Study and the ANSWER Program . International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology 2015 2015 17 . ( https://doi.org/10.1186/s13633-015-0015-1 ) 26351466

Open access

Vickie Braithwaite, Kerry S Jones, Shima Assar, Inez Schoenmakers and Ann Prentice

for age or sex. With the variables expressed as natural logarithms, the coefficient ( s.e.m. ) for a group difference ×100 closely equates to the difference expressed as a sympercent ( s.e.m. ) (31) . Longitudinal analysis of C-FGF23 was conducted