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Fernando Aprile-Garcia, María Antunica-Noguerol, Maia Ludmila Budziñski, Ana C Liberman and Eduardo Arzt

proinflammatory mediators in order to remove the damaging agent and restoring tissue function and structure (1) . Biologically, inflammation advances through several stages. At the cellular level there is a marked response to proinflammatory stimuli, and as a

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Henrik H Thomsen, Holger J Møller, Christian Trolle, Kristian A Groth, Anne Skakkebæk, Anders Bojesen, Christian Høst and Claus H Gravholt

have been linked to states of low-grade inflammation such as diabetes, obesity, liver disease, and atherosclerosis (5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11) , underscoring the important role of macrophages in initiating and propagating these conditions. Previously, we

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Karim Gariani, Geneviève Drifte, Irène Dunn-Siegrist, Jérôme Pugin and François R Jornayvaz

toxicity of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and sepsis (28) . FGF21 can also reduce the severity of cerulein-induced pancreatitis in mice (29) , further indicating that FGF21 could modulate inflammation. These findings highlight the possible role of FGF21 as a

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Wenqi Yang, Ling Liu, Yuan Wei, Chunlu Fang, Fu Zhou, Jinbao Chen, Qinghua Han, Meifang Huang, Xuan Tan, Qiuyue Liu, Qiang Pan, Lu Zhang, Xiaojuan Lei and Liangming Li

the liver and adipose tissue ( 11 , 12 , 13 ). The beneficial effects of exercise on glucose homeostasis are well documented ( 14 ), and exercise has been shown to reduce adipogenesis, alleviate adipose tissue inflammation and improve the disturbed

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Renea A Taylor, Jennifer Lo, Natasha Ascui and Matthew J Watt

associated metabolic and endocrine co-morbidities including increased visceral adipose tissue deposition, glucose intolerance, mild hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia and subclinical inflammation. Xenograft studies that involve subcutaneous injection of

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Fahim Ebrahimi, Sandrine A Urwyler, Philipp Schuetz, Beat Mueller, Luca Bernasconi, Peter Neyer, Marc Y Donath and Mirjam Christ-Crain

pathway in the development of metabolic complications and atherosclerosis is the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from adipose tissue promoting a state of chronic low-grade inflammation ( 3 , 4 , 5 ). It has been suggested that inflammation in turn

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Nikolaj Rittig, Mads Svart, Niels Jessen, Niels Møller, Holger J Møller and Henning Grønbæk

(kcal/day) 0.001 0.0004; 0.002 0.007  Ra palmitate (μmol/min) 3.3 1.8; 4.8 <0.005  pHSL/HSL 0.6 0.2; 0.9 <0.005  BHB (mmol/L) 0.004 0.001; 0.008 0.006 Inflammation  IL-6 (ng/mL) 0.0008 0.0006; 0

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Frederique Van de Velde, Marlies Bekaert, Anja Geerts, Anne Hoorens, Arsène-Hélène Batens, Samyah Shadid, Margriet Ouwens, Yves Van Nieuwenhove and Bruno Lapauw

fibrosis, cirrhosis and even hepatocellular carcinoma. Nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) is diagnosed when steatosis is present in >5% of the hepatocytes with or without nonspecific mild lobular inflammation, while patients with NASH require the joint

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Clara Odilia Sailer, Sophia Julia Wiedemann, Konrad Strauss, Ingeborg Schnyder, Wiebke Kristin Fenske and Mirjam Christ-Crain

circulating markers of systemic inflammation in healthy volunteers undergoing a hypertonic saline infusion test in a prospective study. Materials and methods Study design This is a secondary analysis of a prospective study including 44 healthy

Open access

M A Webb, H Mani, S J Robertson, H L Waller, D R Webb, C L Edwardson, D H Bodicoat, T Yates, K Khunti and M J Davies

systemic inflammation seen within this group ( 7 , 8 ). In particular, the inflammatory cytokine IL6 has been found to be higher in women with PCOS compared with those without and further studies have reported that the higher IL6 levels directly contribute