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Isabel M Abreu, Eva Lau, Bernardo de Sousa Pinto and Davide Carvalho

Introduction Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is diagnosed biochemically when both serum-free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) are within the normal range, whereas the serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is elevated ( 1

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Jakob Kirkegård, Dora Körmendiné Farkas, Jens Otto Lunde Jørgensen and Deirdre P Cronin-Fenton

hypothyroidism are defined by an excess or deficiency of T3 and T4, respectively and can affect organ function and increase mortality ( 2 ). Thyroid hormone status affects the growth and homeostasis of gastrointestinal organs through binding to thyroid hormone

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Kusum Lata, Pinaki Dutta, Subbiah Sridhar, Minakshi Rohilla, Anand Srinivasan, G R V Prashad, Viral N Shah and Anil Bhansali

frequent cause of hypothyroidism in women of reproductive age. The prevalence of hypothyroidism in the general population of reproductive age is ∼2–3% (6, 7) . Overt hypothyroidism is commonly associated with infertility, as thyroid hormones have a direct

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Laura van Iersel, Sarah C Clement, Antoinette Y N Schouten-van Meeteren, Annemieke M Boot, Hedi L Claahsen-van der Grinten, Bernd Granzen, K Sen Han, Geert O Janssens, Erna M Michiels, A S Paul van Trotsenburg, W Peter Vandertop, Dannis G van Vuurden, Hubert N Caron, Leontien C M Kremer and Hanneke M van Santen

Introduction Childhood brain tumor survivors (CBTS) have an increased risk of developing central hypothyroidism due to damage of the hypothalamic–pituitary (HP) region, especially after exposure to cranial radiotherapy (cRT) ( 1 , 2 ). The

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Amir Bashkin, Eliran Yaakobi, Marina Nodelman and Ohad Ronen

diagnoses: overt hypothyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism, overt thyrotoxicosis, subclinical thyrotoxicosis and non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) and/or effect of drugs. It is impossible to differentiate between the latter two based on thyroid function

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Madalena von Hafe, João Sergio Neves, Catarina Vale, Marta Borges-Canha and Adelino Leite-Moreira

contractile apparatus of the cardiac myocyte has two subtypes of myosin heavy chains (MHCs): α-MHC and β-MHC – fast and slow myosin, respectively. T3 can upregulate α-MHC and downregulate β-MHC ( 10 ). Therefore, the myocardial hypothyroid state induces a so

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Nikolina Zdraveska, Maja Zdravkovska, Violeta Anastasovska, Elena Sukarova-Angelovska and Mirjana Kocova

Introduction Thyroid hormones play important role in the processes of neuronal migration and differentiation, myelination and synaptogenesis and are essential for proper neurodevelopment ( 1 ). Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is generally

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Peter Wolf, Yvonne Winhofer, Martin Krššák and Michael Krebs

hormone (TSH) <0.1 or ≥10 μU/mL ( 47 ). Especially in patients suffering from congestive heart failure, both subclinical hypothyroidism and overt hypothyroidism are associated with increased mortality ( 48 ). The same is true for patients hospitalized for

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Luca Persani, Biagio Cangiano and Marco Bonomi

Introduction Central hypothyroidism (CeH) is a rare and heterogenous hypothyroid condition resulting from an insufficient stimulation of an otherwise normal thyroid gland by the hypophyseal thyrotropin hormone (TSH). This loss of central

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Aasem Saif, Shrook Mousa, Maha Assem, Nashwa Tharwat and Alaa Abdelhamid

Introduction Hypothyroidism is associated with an increased risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease owing to its metabolic and hemodynamic effects ( 1 ). Multiple mechanisms account for atherosclerosis in patients with hypothyroidism