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Angelica Lindén Hirschberg

overrepresentation of women with these types of endocrine characteristics in elite sports. Essential hyperandrogenism is one example of the latter that has received much attention in recent years. The present overview describes our current state of knowledge about

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Katica Bajuk Studen and Marija Pfeifer

). General agreement exists now among the community of endocrinologists and gynecologists that the diagnosis of PCOS should be based on the Rotterdam criteria, which include two of the following three features: oligo-/amenorrhea, hyperandrogenism (clinical or

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Stavroula A Paschou, Eleni Palioura, Dimitrios Ioannidis, Panagiotis Anagnostis, Argyro Panagiotakou, Vasiliki Loi, Georgios Karageorgos, Dimitrios G Goulis and Andromachi Vryonidou

Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by chronic anovulation and hyperandrogenism ( 1 ). It is often accompanied by insulin resistance ( 2 ) and abnormal lipid profile ( 3 , 4 ). Several studies have shown that

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N K Stepto, D Hiam, M Gibson-Helm, S Cassar, C L Harrison, S K Hutchison, A E Joham, B J Canny, A Moreno-Asso, B J Strauss, N Hatzirodos, R J Rodgers and H J Teede

central characteristic ( 9 , 10 ), driving both hyperandrogenism and clinical features. The risk of T2D in PCOS is increased 4.4-fold independent of BMI ( 3 , 4 , 11 ) accounting for 23% of T2D in young women ( 12 ); yet, the underlying mechanisms of

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Sebastião Freitas de Medeiros, Cinthia Marenza Ormond, Matheus Antônio Souto de Medeiros, Nayara de Souza Santos, Camila Regis Banhara and Márcia Marly Winck Yamamoto

classic steroidogenic enzyme deficiences, small defects or imbalance in the enzymatic activities seen in some PCOS patients may account for the biochemical hyperandrogenism ( 4 , 8 , 9 ). Hyperandrogenemic PCOS patients may present decreased 3β-HSD II

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Alessandra Gambineri and Carla Pelusi

risk of diabetes mainly depend on the abdominal obesity phenotype. In fact, after adjustment for waist circumference, this relationship drastically attenuates ( 9 ). In females, the risk of T2DM increases with the aggravation of hyperandrogenism ( 10

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Milène Tetsi Nomigni, Sophie Ouzounian, Alice Benoit, Jacqueline Vadrot, Frédérique Tissier, Sylvie Renouf, Hervé Lefebvre, Sophie Christin-Maitre and Estelle Louiset

Introduction Hirsutism is defined as excessive growth of terminal hair on the face and body of a female with a typical male-pattern distribution. Idiopathic hirsutism remains a diagnosis of exclusion, as hyperandrogenism needs to be eliminated

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Yao Chen and Shu-ying Fang

Introduction Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous and complex disorder of reproductive aged women, which usually causes reproduction and metabolism failure ( 1 , 2 ). It often presents as hyperandrogenism, hyperinsulinemia

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Manjeetkaur Sehemby, Prachi Bansal, Vijaya Sarathi, Ashwini Kolhe, Kanchan Kothari, Swati Jadhav-Ramteke, Anurag R Lila, Tushar Bandgar and Nalini S Shah

number of subjects. However, it is relatively a good sample size for a rare disorder like VOT, that too from a single center. The study was also limited by the retrospective design. Conclusion VOTs present with severe hyperandrogenism and

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Sebastião Freitas de Medeiros, Márcia Marly Winck Yamamoto, Matheus Antônio Souto de Medeiros, Bruna Barcelo Barbosa, José Maria Soares Junior and Edmund Chada Baracat

elapsed time for the appearance of a particular characteristic since the disease first appears is unknown. Menses abnormalities, polycystic ovary morphology, and hyperandrogenism, the most important features of PCOS that may even advance menarche, might