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Selina Mäkinen, Yen H Nguyen, Paulina Skrobuk, and Heikki A Koistinen

palmitate-induced insulin resistance ( 11 , 12 , 13 ). Since data on human skeletal muscle are limited, the current study was initiated to explore whether there is a similar interaction with different fatty acids in primary human muscle cells. We tested if

Open access

K L Gatford, G K Heinemann, S D Thompson, J V Zhang, S Buckberry, J A Owens, G A Dekker, C T Roberts, and on behalf of the SCOPE Consortium

Introduction The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), IGF1 and IGF2, are important regulators of placental and foetal development, as well as postnatal growth and metabolism. In humans, circulating IGF1 peaks in adolescence and then falls with age

Open access

Ferdinand Roelfsema, Diana van Heemst, Ali Iranmanesh, Paul Takahashi, Rebecca Yang, and Johannes D Veldhuis

Lammers CH Heuser I. With aging in humans the activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal system increases and its diurnal amplitude flattens . Life Science 1997 61 2239 – 2246 . ( doi:10.1016/S0024-3205(97)00926-0 ) 10.1016/S0024

Open access

André Marques-Pinto and Davide Carvalho

primarily masculine in 20%, while 27% have both male and female abnormalities, and no evident cause is identified as for the remaining 15% (2) . Since the mid-20th century, numerous studies have reported an increasing incidence of human reproductive

Open access

Florian W Kiefer

and human infants ( 3 , 13 , 14 ). Another difference between brown and beige adipocytes pertains to their developmental origin. Classical brown adipocytes originate from precursor cells in the embryonic mesoderm that express the transcription factor

Open access

Yiyan Wang, Yaoyao Dong, Yinghui Fang, Yao Lv, Qiqi Zhu, Xiaoheng Li, Qingquan Lian, and Ren-Shan Ge

factor of intrauterine growth restriction. Maternal glucocorticoid (cortisol in the human and corticosterone, CORT, in the rat) levels are much higher than those in the circulation of the fetus. Although the maternal glucocorticoid can easily penetrate

Open access

Erika Peverelli, Federica Ermetici, Sabrina Corbetta, Ettore Gozzini, Laura Avagliano, Marco A Zappa, Gaetano Bulfamante, Paolo Beck-Peccoz, Anna Spada, and Giovanna Mantovani

are expressed in fat cells (11, 12) . Targeted disruption of the Prkar2b gene in mice leads to stable alterations in energy storage and utilization, resulting in a lean phenotype (13) . It has been reported that human adipose tissue exhibits

Open access

Antonia Ertelt, Ann-Kristin Barton, Robert R Schmitz, and Heidrun Gehlen

Introduction Metabolic syndrome in humans was first described almost 50 years ago by Camus (1) , but there was little interest in this disease until the late 1980s, when it gained new attention as ‘syndrome X’ or ‘the deadly quartet’ (2, 3

Open access

A Rehfeld, D L Egeberg, K Almstrup, J H Petersen, S Dissing, and N E Skakkebæk

Introduction Human male infertility is a common problem worldwide ( 1 ). The causes are in many cases unknown, but exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been suspected to be involved ( 2 , 3 ). Sperm cell dysfunction is a

Open access

Selina Mäkinen, Neeta Datta, Yen H Nguyen, Petro Kyrylenko, Markku Laakso, and Heikki A Koistinen

simvastatin was most likely involved in muscular adverse effects ( 12 ). The mechanisms whereby statins affect insulin sensitivity in human muscle are unclear. Simvastatin-induced insulin resistance has been proposed to result from decreased lipid synthetic