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Gudmundur Johannsson, Martin Bidlingmaier, Beverly M K Biller, Margaret Boguszewski, Felipe F Casanueva, Philippe Chanson, Peter E Clayton, Catherine S Choong, David Clemmons, Mehul Dattani, Jan Frystyk, Ken Ho, Andrew R Hoffman, Reiko Horikawa, Anders Juul, John J Kopchick, Xiaoping Luo, Sebastian Neggers, Irene Netchine, Daniel S Olsson, Sally Radovick, Ron Rosenfeld, Richard J Ross, Katharina Schilbach, Paulo Solberg, Christian Strasburger, Peter Trainer, Kevin C J Yuen, Kerstin Wickstrom, Jens O L Jorgensen, and on behalf of the Growth Hormone Research Society

). The requirement for rigorous procedures utilizing biomarkers in drug development is evident and recognized ( 2 , 5 ). The obvious biomarkers of growth hormone (GH) action in children and adults are serum levels of GH itself and of insulin-like growth

Open access

Jin Kyu Oh, Young Jae Im, Kwanjin Park, and Jae-Seung Paick

frequent causes include growth hormone (GH) deficiencies and idiopathic functional abnormalities of the hypothalamic–pituitary–testicular axis, and overt abnormalities are generally absent under these conditions ( 2 , 3 ). Patients with micropenis are

Open access

María L Bacigalupo, Verónica G Piazza, Nadia S Cicconi, Pablo Carabias, Andrzej Bartke, Yimin Fang, Ana I Sotelo, Gabriel A Rabinovich, María F Troncoso, and Johanna G Miquet

, alcohol abuse or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Regardless of the carcinogenic insult, it usually develops in patients with cirrhosis due to chronic inflammation and advanced fibrosis ( 2 ). Growth hormone (GH) is a major regulator of body growth and

Open access

Mette Marie Baunsgaard, Anne Sophie Lind Helligsoe, Louise Tram Henriksen, Torben Stamm Mikkelsen, Michael Callesen, Britta Weber, Henrik Hasle, and Niels Birkebæk

physical chronic late effects ( 15 ) with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) being the most common endocrinopathy ( 16 ) followed by thyroid-stimulating hormone deficiency ( 17 ). CR is the most significant risk factor for the development of GHD ( 18

Open access

Alicia Romano, Juan Pablo Kaski, Jovanna Dahlgren, Nicky Kelepouris, Alberto Pietropoli, Tilman R Rohrer, and Michel Polak

stenosis (PVS; prevalence 50–60%), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM; 20%) and atrial septal defects (6–10%) ( 1 ). Growth hormone (GH) treatment in patients with NS improves height velocity, height standard deviation score (SDS) and adult height, with a

Open access

Alessandro Ciresi, Stefano Radellini, Valentina Guarnotta, Maria Grazia Mineo, and Carla Giordano

one of the most influential regulators of growth hormone (GH) secretion and action, with different mechanisms ( 2 ). Androgens and estrogens exert opposite endocrine-mediated effects on insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I production and metabolic

Open access

Alexander A L Jorge, Thomas Edouard, Mohamad Maghnie, Alberto Pietropoli, Nicky Kelepouris, Alicia Romano, Martin Zenker, and Reiko Horikawa

addition, puberty is often delayed and is accompanied by a delay in bone age ( 1 , 9 , 11 ). It is estimated that over 50% of females and almost 40% of males with NS have an adult height below the third percentile ( 1 ). Abnormalities of growth hormone

Open access

Sarmistha Banerjee, Allison M Hayes, and Bernard H Shapiro

of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 ( 3 , 4 ) while in the case of mice, males express greater levels of CYP2D9 ( 2 ). (ii) The sexual dimorphisms in CYP expression are determined by sex differences in the circulating growth hormone (GH) profiles in adulthood. More

Open access

Thomas Reinehr, Martin Carlsson, Dionisios Chrysis, and Cecilia Camacho-Hübner

height is lower than predicted height. The difference between predicted and achieved adult height depends on bone age retardation in CDGP ( 8 , 9 , 11 ). Since bone age is delayed in children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) before the initiation

Open access

Werner F Blum, Abdullah Alherbish, Afaf Alsagheir, Ahmed El Awwa, Walid Kaplan, Ekaterina Koledova, and Martin O Savage

Introduction The growth hormone (GH)–insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I axis is the principle endocrine system regulating linear growth in children ( 1 ). Linked to the nutritional status of the individual, GH is a potent stimulator of IGF