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Greta B Raglan, Louis A Schmidt and Jay Schulkin

Introduction Stress reactions are by no means universal, and the activation of ‘stress hormones’, such as glucocorticoids or corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), is not necessarily the mark of a stress response ( 1 ). Some individuals have

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Trevor Lewis, Eva Zeisig and Jamie E Gaida

and associated metabolic conditions, such as insulin resistance ( 5 ), diabetes ( 6 ), hypercholesterolaemia ( 7 ), statins ( 8 ), abdominal fat ( 9 ), the sympathetic nervous system ( 10 , 11 ), and corticosteroid use ( 12 ). Glucocorticoids are a

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Paal Methlie, Steinar Hustad, Ralf Kellman, Bjørg Almås, Martina M Erichsen, Eystein S Husebye and Kristian Løvås

Introduction Glucocorticoid and androgen hormone measurements play a decisive role in the diagnosis and management of many disorders of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and gonads. Examples include Addison's disease (AD), Cushing

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Caio Jordão Teixeira, Junia Carolina Santos-Silva, Dailson Nogueira de Souza, Alex Rafacho, Gabriel Forato Anhe and Silvana Bordin

polarization, which is characterized by low levels of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, TNF-α and IL-6, has been previously demonstrated to be induced by glucocorticoids ( 37 ). In the context of pancreatic islets, M2 infiltration promotes cell proliferation

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Kerry V Fanson, Tamara Keeley and Benjamin G Fanson

Introduction Elevated glucocorticoid (GC) titers associated with chronic stress can lead to reproductive failure (1) . Consequently, studies of reproductive dysfunction often focus on the suppressive effects of GCs. However, GCs also play a

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Thomas Reinehr, Alexandra Kulle, Juliane Rothermel, Caroline Knop-Schmenn, Nina Lass, Christina Bosse and Paul-Martin Holterhus

regulation of precursors of androgens and other steroid hormones within the steroid metabolome encompassing glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids and estrogens is largely unknown in PCOS. Although PCOS has frequently been reported in adolescents, the

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Legh Wilkinson, Nicolette J D Verhoog and Ann Louw

pathway of the stress response ( 1 ). This in turn, has many peripheral effects, such as an increase in circulating glucocorticoids (GCs) ( 2 , 3 ). Chronic stress or prolonged exogenous GC treatment also disrupts the central homeostatic nature of GC

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Peter Ergang, Anna Mikulecká, Martin Vodicˇka, Karla Vagnerová, Ivan Mikšík and Jirˇí Pácha

the sympathetic–adrenal–medullary axis, which subsequently release glucocorticoids and catecholamines, respectively. The HPA and SNS axes are the two major pathways through which stress is able to modulate immune functions depending on the nature

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Helga Schultz, Svend Aage Engelholm, Eva Harder, Ulrik Pedersen-Bjergaard and Peter Lommer Kristensen

Introduction In patients with malignant disease, glucocorticoids are widely used on various indications. High-dose treatment is given as part of chemotherapy regimens and for treating oedema associated with metastatic spinal cord compression

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Jonneke J Hollanders, Bibian van der Voorn, Noera Kieviet, Koert M Dolman, Yolanda B de Rijke, Erica L T van den Akker, Joost Rotteveel, Adriaan Honig and Martijn J J Finken

Introduction Prenatal exposure to excessive glucocorticoids (GCs) has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and depressive disorders ( 1 , 2 ). This might be due to permanent alterations in the settings of the