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Kathrin Zopf, Kathrin R Frey, Tina Kienitz, Manfred Ventz, Britta Bauer and Marcus Quinkler

Introduction Polymorphisms of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) may influence the sensitivity to glucocorticoids by altering the GR expression (e.g. reducing transcription) and influencing transactivation and transrepression of target genes

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Legh Wilkinson, Nicolette J D Verhoog and Ann Louw

signalling, often resulting in various peripheral effects, one of which is the tissue-specific reductions in the glucocorticoid receptor α (GRα) functional pool. This reduction in the GRα functional pool may ultimately drive the development of acquired GC

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Sylvia Thiele, Anke Hannemann, Maria Winzer, Ulrike Baschant, Heike Weidner, Matthias Nauck, Rajesh V Thakker, Martin Bornhäuser, Lorenz C Hofbauer and Martina Rauner

). Figure 4 Sclerostin ( SOST ) expression depends on the presence of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The GR was overexpressed in human mesenchymal stromal cells (HMSCs) using pCMX-HA-hGRalpha and then left untreated or treated with dexamethasone (DEX

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Fernando Aprile-Garcia, María Antunica-Noguerol, Maia Ludmila Budziñski, Ana C Liberman and Eduardo Arzt

action during inflammation (23, 24) . GCs exert their biological effects binding to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which is a ligand-activated TF that regulates the expression of target genes, either positively or negatively (18, 25) . In an

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R A M Quax, J A M van Laar, R van Heerebeek, K Greiner, E Ben-Chetrit, M Stanford, G R Wallace, F Fortune, M Ghabra, M Soylu, J M W Hazes, S W J Lamberts, J H Kappen, P M van Hagen, J W Koper and R A Feelders

expression levels of the glucocorticoid receptor isoforms in PBMC of patients with Behçet's disease and healthy controls. GR-α is the biologically active isoform (A), GR-β acts as a dominant negative isoform (B). The ratio of GR-α/GR-β is shown in C

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Gavin P Vinson and Caroline H Brennan

any interaction with the adrenal cortex and the secretion of glucocorticoids, other than via the hypothalamus. On the contrary, it has sometimes been assumed that they do not (e.g. (53) ). However, neural glucocorticoid receptor (GR) disruption

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Elizabeth Micks, Greta B Raglan and Jay Schulkin

desirable noncontraceptive benefits. Progestin compounds display differing binding affinities to the PR, androgen receptor, estrogen receptor, glucocorticoid receptor, and mineralocorticoid receptor. Currently available contraceptive progestins are related

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Janko Sattler, Jinwen Tu, Shihani Stoner, Jingbao Li, Frank Buttgereit, Markus J Seibel, Hong Zhou and Mark S Cooper

then blocked with 5% goat serum for 30 min and incubated overnight with the primary antibody for 11β-HSD1 (1:100, Cayman Chemicals) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) (1:400, sc-1004, Santa Cruz Biotechnology). A biotinylated secondary antibody was

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Peter Ergang, Anna Mikulecká, Martin Vodicˇka, Karla Vagnerová, Ivan Mikšík and Jirˇí Pácha

merely depend on the level of the free hormone, activity of multidrug resistance efflux pumps and density of glucocorticoid receptors in target cells but also on the prereceptor metabolism of glucocorticoids, which is catalyzed by two enzymes, 11β

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Masafumi Tetsuka and Misato Tanakadate

progressed ( 22 ). This study demonstrates that bovine spermatozoa exert neither HSD11B1 nor HSD11B2 activity under the IVF conditions used. Various testes, epididymis and male accessory gland tissues express HSD11Bs and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in