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Emanuelle Nunes-Souza Pelé Pequeno Príncipe Research Institute, Água Verde, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil
Faculdades Pequeno Príncipe, Rebouças, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil
Centro de Genética Molecular e Pesquisa do Câncer em Crianças (CEGEMPAC) at Universidade Federal do Paraná, Agostinho Leão Jr., Glória, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil

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Mônica Evelise Silveira Laboratório Central de Análises Clínicas, Hospital de Clínicas, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Centro, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil

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Monalisa Castilho Mendes Pelé Pequeno Príncipe Research Institute, Água Verde, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil
Faculdades Pequeno Príncipe, Rebouças, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil
Centro de Genética Molecular e Pesquisa do Câncer em Crianças (CEGEMPAC) at Universidade Federal do Paraná, Agostinho Leão Jr., Glória, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil

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Seigo Nagashima Serviço de Anatomia Patológica, Hospital de Clínicas, Universidade Federal do Paraná, General Carneiro, Alto da Glória, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil
Departamento de Medicina, PUC-PR, Prado Velho, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil

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Caroline Busatta Vaz de Paula Serviço de Anatomia Patológica, Hospital de Clínicas, Universidade Federal do Paraná, General Carneiro, Alto da Glória, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil
Departamento de Medicina, PUC-PR, Prado Velho, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil

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Guilherme Guilherme Vieira Cavalcante da Silva Serviço de Anatomia Patológica, Hospital de Clínicas, Universidade Federal do Paraná, General Carneiro, Alto da Glória, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil
Departamento de Medicina, PUC-PR, Prado Velho, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil

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Giovanna Silva Barbosa Serviço de Anatomia Patológica, Hospital de Clínicas, Universidade Federal do Paraná, General Carneiro, Alto da Glória, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil
Departamento de Medicina, PUC-PR, Prado Velho, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil

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Julia Belgrowicz Martins Pelé Pequeno Príncipe Research Institute, Água Verde, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil
Faculdades Pequeno Príncipe, Rebouças, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil

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Lúcia de Noronha Serviço de Anatomia Patológica, Hospital de Clínicas, Universidade Federal do Paraná, General Carneiro, Alto da Glória, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil
Departamento de Medicina, PUC-PR, Prado Velho, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil

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Luana Lenzi Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil

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José Renato Sales Barbosa Pelé Pequeno Príncipe Research Institute, Água Verde, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil
Centro de Genética Molecular e Pesquisa do Câncer em Crianças (CEGEMPAC) at Universidade Federal do Paraná, Agostinho Leão Jr., Glória, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil

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Rayssa Danilow Fachin Donin Centro de Genética Molecular e Pesquisa do Câncer em Crianças (CEGEMPAC) at Universidade Federal do Paraná, Agostinho Leão Jr., Glória, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil

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Juliana Ferreira de Moura Pós Graduação em Microbiologia, Parasitologia e Patologia, Departamento de Patologia Básica – UFPR, Curitiba, Brazil

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Gislaine Custódio Faculdades Pequeno Príncipe, Rebouças, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil
Laboratório Central de Análises Clínicas, Hospital de Clínicas, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Centro, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil

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Cleber Machado-Souza Pelé Pequeno Príncipe Research Institute, Água Verde, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil
Faculdades Pequeno Príncipe, Rebouças, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil
Centro de Genética Molecular e Pesquisa do Câncer em Crianças (CEGEMPAC) at Universidade Federal do Paraná, Agostinho Leão Jr., Glória, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil

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Enzo Lalli Institut de Pharmacologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire CNRS, Sophia Antipolis, Valbonne, France

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Bonald Cavalcante de Figueiredo Pelé Pequeno Príncipe Research Institute, Água Verde, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil
Faculdades Pequeno Príncipe, Rebouças, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil
Centro de Genética Molecular e Pesquisa do Câncer em Crianças (CEGEMPAC) at Universidade Federal do Paraná, Agostinho Leão Jr., Glória, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil
Departamento de Saúde Coletiva, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil

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onset threshold (AOT), we investigated at which ages when at least >35% of the females present AOT, possible ZR cell number changes, and whether early adrenarche timing is different in Brazilian compared to European girls. AOT was selected based on

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Rui-yi Tang Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Beijing, People’s Republic of China

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Rong Chen Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Beijing, People’s Republic of China

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Miao Ma Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Beijing, People’s Republic of China

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Shou-qing Lin Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Beijing, People’s Republic of China

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Yi-wen Zhang Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Beijing, People’s Republic of China

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Ya-ping Wang Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Beijing, People’s Republic of China

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assessed the clinical characteristics of female patients with IHH. Shaw et al . ( 9 ) have summarized the characteristics of 248 Caucasian female patients with IHH, and Bhagavath et al . ( 10 ) have reported the characteristics of 57 Caucasian female

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André Marques-Pinto Serviço de Endocrinologia, Departamento de Endocrinologia, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto, Al. Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal

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Davide Carvalho Serviço de Endocrinologia, Departamento de Endocrinologia, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto, Al. Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
Serviço de Endocrinologia, Departamento de Endocrinologia, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto, Al. Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal

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primarily masculine in 20%, while 27% have both male and female abnormalities, and no evident cause is identified as for the remaining 15% (2) . Since the mid-20th century, numerous studies have reported an increasing incidence of human reproductive

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Angelica Lindén Hirschberg Division of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Department of Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

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Introduction The proportion of women who engage in sports at all levels has increased dramatically over the past 50 years, as reflected in the rising proportion of female Olympic competitors. For example, at the summer Olympics in Munich in

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Lára Ósk Eggertsdóttir Claessen Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland
Department of Emergency Medicine, Landspitali – The National University Hospital of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland

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Hafrún Kristjánsdóttir Physical Activity, Physical Education, Sport, and Health (PAPESH) Research Centre, Sports Science Department, School of Social Sciences, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland

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María Kristín Jónsdóttir Mental Health Services, Landspitali – The National University Hospital of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland
Department of Psychology, School of Social Sciences, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland

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Sigrún Helga Lund deCODE Genetics, Inc/Amgen Inc., Reykjavik, Iceland
School of Engineering and Natural Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland

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Ingunn Unnsteinsdóttir Kristensen Department of Psychology, School of Social Sciences, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland

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Helga Ágústa Sigurjónsdóttir Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland
Department of Medicine, Landspitali – The National University Hospital of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland

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does not exclude GHD ( 28 , 40 ). Female athletes remain an understudied population with regards to mTBI ( 41 ) and HP following mTBI even though they appear to be more susceptible to mTBI ( 42 ) and recovery time seems longer than with male athletes

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Maki Igarashi Medical Support Center for Japan Environmental and Children’s Study, National Center for Child Health and Development, Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan
Department of Molecular Endocrinology, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan

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Tadayuki Ayabe Medical Support Center for Japan Environmental and Children’s Study, National Center for Child Health and Development, Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan
Department of Molecular Endocrinology, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan

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Kiwako Yamamoto-Hanada Medical Support Center for Japan Environmental and Children’s Study, National Center for Child Health and Development, Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan

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Keiko Matsubara Department of Molecular Endocrinology, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan

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Hatoko Sasaki Medical Support Center for Japan Environmental and Children’s Study, National Center for Child Health and Development, Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan

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Mayako Saito-Abe Medical Support Center for Japan Environmental and Children’s Study, National Center for Child Health and Development, Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan

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Miori Sato Medical Support Center for Japan Environmental and Children’s Study, National Center for Child Health and Development, Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan

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Nathan Mise Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, Japan

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Akihiko Ikegami Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, Japan

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Masayuki Shimono Regional Center for Pilot Study of Japan Environment and Children’s Study, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, Japan

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Reiko Suga Regional Center for Pilot Study of Japan Environment and Children’s Study, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, Japan

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Shouichi Ohga Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, Japan
Research Center for Environment and Developmental Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, Japan

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Masafumi Sanefuji Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, Japan
Research Center for Environment and Developmental Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, Japan

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Masako Oda Department of Public Health, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto, Japan

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Hiroshi Mitsubuchi Department of Neonatology, Kumamoto University Hospital, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto, Japan

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Takehiro Michikawa Japan Environment and Children’s Study Programme Office, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan

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Shin Yamazaki Japan Environment and Children’s Study Programme Office, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan

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Shoji Nakayama Japan Environment and Children’s Study Programme Office, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan

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Yukihiro Ohya Medical Support Center for Japan Environmental and Children’s Study, National Center for Child Health and Development, Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan

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Maki Fukami Medical Support Center for Japan Environmental and Children’s Study, National Center for Child Health and Development, Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan
Department of Molecular Endocrinology, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan

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average age of adrenarche in the East Asian population is 7.7 years ( 3 ). Nevertheless, we found a significant difference in serum E 2 levels between boys and girls. This sexual dimorphism in circulating E 2 levels cannot be ascribed to the female

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Anastasia K Armeni Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Patras Medical School, Patras, Greece

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Konstantinos Assimakopoulos Department of Psychiatry, University of Patras Medical School, Patras, Greece

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Dimitra Marioli Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Patras Medical School, Patras, Greece

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Vassiliki Koika Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Patras Medical School, Patras, Greece

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Euthychia Michaelidou Department of Biology, University of Patras, Patras, Greece

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Niki Mourtzi Department of Biology, University of Patras, Patras, Greece

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Gregoris Iconomou Department of Psychiatry, University of Patras Medical School, Patras, Greece

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Neoklis A Georgopoulos Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Patras Medical School, Patras, Greece

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Introduction Over the past decades, research attention has been increasingly paid to the examination of the neurobio­logical component of sexual function. Female sexual desire and arousal have been shown to have a heritable component of

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Shiori Minabe Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan
Division of Biomedical Information Analysis, Iwate Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization, Disaster Reconstruction Center, Iwate Medical University, Yahaba, Japan

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Kinuyo Iwata Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan

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Youki Watanabe Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan

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Hirotaka Ishii Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan

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Hitoshi Ozawa Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan
Faculty of Health Science, Bukkyo University, Kyoto, Japan

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gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)/gonadotropin pulse generator regulating gametogenesis and steroidogenesis in male and female mammals ( 24 , 25 , 26 , 27 ). Environmental stresses during development periods such as prenatal androgen excess ( 28

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Carlo Cinque Fondazione Ethoikos, Radicondoli, Italy
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology V. Erspamer, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy

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Manuela Zinni Department of Physiology and Pharmacology V. Erspamer, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy

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Anna Rita Zuena Department of Physiology and Pharmacology V. Erspamer, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy

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Chiara Giuli Fondazione Ethoikos, Radicondoli, Italy

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Sebastiano G Alemà Department of Physiology and Pharmacology V. Erspamer, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy

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Assia Catalani Department of Physiology and Pharmacology V. Erspamer, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy

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Paola Casolini Department of Physiology and Pharmacology V. Erspamer, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy

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Roberto Cozzolino Fondazione Ethoikos, Radicondoli, Italy

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faecal sampling method involving short time handling, for steroid hormone assessment in male and female Wistar rats housed in standard social condition. We focused our research on faecal corticosterone metabolite measurements. We utilised a commercial

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Ditte Sofie Dahl Sørensen Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Jesper Krogh Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Åse Krogh Rasmussen Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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Mikkel Andreassen Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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prevalence of 1:200 to 1:1000 ( 4 ), and is typically diagnosed during workup of early puberty or due to symptoms of mild hyperandrogenism including hirsutism and acne in females ( 5 ). The goal of treatment is first, to replace deficient hormones, and

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