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Masatada Watanabe, Shuji Ohno and Hiroshi Wachi

Introduction Sex steroids are important for the maintenance of healthy skin. Based on studies on older women, sex steroids in skin regulate the collagen content and the synthesis of hyaluronic acid ( 1 ). Estrogen-conjugated cream applied to

Open access

Qi Che, Xirong Xiao, Jun Xu, Miao Liu, Yongning Lu, Suying Liu and Xi Dong

into two distinct types: Type I is estrogen-dependent and derived from endometrial hyperplasia owing to overexposure of estrogen, which occurs more frequently in young women and is related to obesity, early age at menarche, nulliparity, late

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Shuang Ye, Yuanyuan Xu, Jiehao Li, Shuhui Zheng, Peng Sun and Tinghuai Wang

Background Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is negative for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth receptor 2 (HER-2), and accounts for 15–20% of all breast cancers ( 1 ). Due to this lack of the

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Henryk F Urbanski, Kevin Mueller and Cynthia L Bethea

Introduction Like elderly women, old female rhesus macaques show a marked decline in circulating E concentrations ( 1 ), and several monkey studies have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of E or a selective estrogen receptor modulator

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Emmanuelle Noirrit, Mélissa Buscato, Marion Dupuis, Bernard Payrastre, Coralie Fontaine, Jean-François Arnal and Marie-Cécile Valera

Introduction Menopause is defined as the permanent cessation of menstruation and ovulation due to ovarian failure. The decline in estrogen and progesterone levels in women can lead to a number of bothersome symptoms. The most common include

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Yali Cheng, Qiaoying Lv, Bingying Xie, Bingyi Yang, Weiwei Shan, Chengcheng Ning, Bing Li, Liying Xie, Chao Gu, Xuezhen Luo, Xiaojun Chen and Qin Zhu

Introduction Endometrial cancer (EC) is one of the most common malignant genital tumors among females worldwide, with an estimated 61,380 new cases in America in 2017 ( 1 ). It is known that type1 EC is estrogen-dependent tumor. Sustained

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Carina Ankarberg-Lindgren, Aneta Gawlik, Berit Kriström, Laura Mazzanti, Elisabeth J Ruijgrok and Theo C J Sas

Introduction Girls with hypogonadism require estrogen replacement therapy to induce puberty and maintain secondary sex characteristics, as well as to attain peak bone mass. These outcomes are achieved by starting with a low estradiol (E 2

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Anastasia K Armeni, Konstantinos Assimakopoulos, Dimitra Marioli, Vassiliki Koika, Euthychia Michaelidou, Niki Mourtzi, Gregoris Iconomou and Neoklis A Georgopoulos

moderate size. Data have shown that additive and non-additive genetic effects explained 21–35% of the variation in desire, 24–26% in subjective arousal and 16–25% in lubrication ( 1 , 2 ). Central regulatory role of estrogens in female sexuality is

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Elizabeth Yan Zhang and Bao-Ting Zhu

Introduction Many earlier studies have shown that estrogens are important modulators of immune system functions. It was demonstrated that although physiological levels of estrogens are immunostimulatory, high or super-physiological levels of

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Konstantin Yakimchuk, Chandrashekar Bangalore Revanna, Dan Huang, Jose Inzunza and Sam Okret

Introduction Many physiological processes, such as reproduction, growth and development, are regulated by estrogens. Furthermore, disruption of estrogens signaling has been shown to be involved in a variety of adverse health effects in several