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M P Schuijt, C G J Sweep, R van der Steen, A J Olthaar, N M M L Stikkelbroeck, H A Ross and A E van Herwaarden

to determine free testosterone levels. The possible use of free testosterone calculation during pregnancy, when estradiol concentration is substantially increased, is debated as SHBG is also able to bind estradiol with similar binding affinity (3

Open access

Arpna Sharma, Vijay Simha Baddela, Frank Becker, Dirk Dannenberger, Torsten Viergutz and Jens Vanselow

fluid and plasma estradiol ( 6 ). Elevated NEFA levels have detrimental effects on bovine GC ( 7 ). In human GC, saturated fatty acids (PA and SA) are known to induce apoptosis, causing potential reproductive abnormalities such as amenorrhea, which is

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Corina Verónica Sasso, Flavia Eliana Santiano, Fiorella Campo Verde Arboccó, Leila Ester Zyla, Silvana Noemí Semino, Martin Eduardo Guerrero-Gimenez, Virginia Pistone Creydt, Constanza Matilde López Fontana and Rubén Walter Carón

reported to express mostly ERB after stimulation with estradiol (10–1000 nmol/L), with an induction of apoptosis dependent on the dose ( 6 ). With respect to estrogen receptor alpha (ERA), it has been reported that its expression is minimal in normal colon

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Carina Ankarberg-Lindgren, Aneta Gawlik, Berit Kriström, Laura Mazzanti, Elisabeth J Ruijgrok and Theo C J Sas

Introduction Girls with hypogonadism require estrogen replacement therapy to induce puberty and maintain secondary sex characteristics, as well as to attain peak bone mass. These outcomes are achieved by starting with a low estradiol (E 2

Open access

Qi Che, Xirong Xiao, Jun Xu, Miao Liu, Yongning Lu, Suying Liu and Xi Dong

cancer is often correlated with exceptional estrogen changes and estrogen-induced signaling ( 5 ). We previously verified that 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) upregulated interleukin (IL)-6 expressions in endometrial cancer, which lead to the local E 2 synthesis in

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Chan Sub Park, Jihye Choi, Min-Ki Seong, Sung-Eun Hong, Jae-Sung Kim, In-Chul Park, Hyesil Seol, Woo Chul Noh and Hyun-Ah Kim

Introduction Estradiol is a key factor for tumorigenesis and prognosis of hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer. Although estradiol is produced mainly by the ovary in premenopausal women, the adrenal gland and adipocytes are also

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Thomas Reinehr, Alexandra Kulle, Juliane Rothermel, Caroline Knop-Schmenn, Nina Lass, Christina Bosse and Paul-Martin Holterhus

, 21-deoxycorticosterone, deoxycorticosterone, corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, cortisol, cortisone, androstenedione, testosterone, dehydroepiandrostenedione sulfate (DHEA-S), estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle

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Katarzyna Wyskida, Grzegorz Franik, Tomasz Wikarek, Aleksander Owczarek, Alham Delroba, Jerzy Chudek, Jerzy Sikora and Magdalena Olszanecka-Glinianowicz

the menstrual cycle in both ovulatory and anovulatory women. Additionally, in some ( 13 ), but not in other studies ( 14 ), the association between changes in plasma leptin levels and variations of both estradiol and progesterone release were observed

Open access

Shenglong Le, Leiting Xu, Moritz Schumann, Na Wu, Timo Törmäkangas, Markku Alén, Sulin Cheng and Petri Wiklund

centrifugation and stored immediately at −80°C until analysis. The samples from different time points were analyzed by one technician using the same kits and instrument. Estradiol (E2), testosterone and SHBG were determined by ELISA (NovaTec Immunodiagnostica

Open access

M Boering, P R van Dijk, S J J Logtenberg, K H Groenier, B H R Wolffenbuttel, R O B Gans, N Kleefstra and H J G Bilo

gonadotropins and sex steroids, concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, and 17-β-estradiol were also assessed. Subjects, materials and methods Study design This study is a post hoc analysis of a