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M P Schuijt, C G J Sweep, R van der Steen, A J Olthaar, N M M L Stikkelbroeck, H A Ross and A E van Herwaarden

to determine free testosterone levels. The possible use of free testosterone calculation during pregnancy, when estradiol concentration is substantially increased, is debated as SHBG is also able to bind estradiol with similar binding affinity (3

Open access

Arpna Sharma, Vijay Simha Baddela, Frank Becker, Dirk Dannenberger, Torsten Viergutz and Jens Vanselow

fluid and plasma estradiol ( 6 ). Elevated NEFA levels have detrimental effects on bovine GC ( 7 ). In human GC, saturated fatty acids (PA and SA) are known to induce apoptosis, causing potential reproductive abnormalities such as amenorrhea, which is

Open access

Corina Verónica Sasso, Flavia Eliana Santiano, Fiorella Campo Verde Arboccó, Leila Ester Zyla, Silvana Noemí Semino, Martin Eduardo Guerrero-Gimenez, Virginia Pistone Creydt, Constanza Matilde López Fontana and Rubén Walter Carón

reported to express mostly ERB after stimulation with estradiol (10–1000 nmol/L), with an induction of apoptosis dependent on the dose ( 6 ). With respect to estrogen receptor alpha (ERA), it has been reported that its expression is minimal in normal colon

Open access

Carina Ankarberg-Lindgren, Aneta Gawlik, Berit Kriström, Laura Mazzanti, Elisabeth J Ruijgrok and Theo C J Sas

Introduction Girls with hypogonadism require estrogen replacement therapy to induce puberty and maintain secondary sex characteristics, as well as to attain peak bone mass. These outcomes are achieved by starting with a low estradiol (E 2

Open access

Lachlan Angus, Shalem Y Leemaqz, Olivia Ooi, Pauline Cundill, Nicholas Silberstein, Peter Locke, Jd Zajac and Ada S Cheung

Background: Estradiol with or without an antiandrogen (cyproterone acetate or spironolactone) is commonly prescribed in transfeminine individuals who have not had orchidectomy, however there is no evidence to guide optimal treatment choice.

Objective: We aimed to compare add-on cyproterone acetate versus spironolactone in lowering endogenous testosterone concentrations in transfeminine individuals.

Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study.

Methods: We analysed 114 transfeminine individuals who had been on estradiol therapy for >6 months in two gender clinics in Melbourne, Australia. Total testosterone concentrations were compared between three groups; estradiol alone (n=21), estradiol plus cyproterone acetate (n=21) and estradiol plus spironolactone (n=38). Secondary outcomes included serum estradiol concentration, estradiol valerate dose, blood pressure, serum potassium, urea and creatinine.

Results: Median age was 27.0 years (22.5, 45.1) and median duration of hormone therapy was 1.5 years (0.9, 2.6), which was not different between groups. On univariate analysis, the cyproterone group had significantly lower total testosterone concentrations (0.8nmol/L (0.6, 1.20)) compared with the spironolactone group (2.0nmol/L (0.9, 9.4), p=0.037) and estradiol alone group (10.5nmol/L (4.9, 17.2), p<0.001), which remained significant (p=0.005) after adjustments for estradiol concentration, dose and age. Serum urea was higher in the spironolactone group compared with the cyproterone group. No differences were observed in total daily estradiol dose, blood pressure, serum estradiol, potassium or creatinine.

Conclusions: The cyproterone group achieved serum total testosterone concentrations in the female reference range. As spironolactone may cause feminisation without inhibition of steroidogenesis, it is unclear which anti-androgen is more effective at feminisation. Further prospective studies are required.

Open access

Qi Che, Xirong Xiao, Xu Jun, Miao Liu, Yongning Lu, Suying Liu and Xi Dong

Accumulating evidence revealed that the leading risk factor of endometrial cancer is exposure to endogenous and exogenous estrogens, while the exact mechanism underlying estrogen contribution to endometrial cancer progression has not been elucidated clearly. Interleukin (IL)-6 have been verified to be critical for tumor progression in several human cancers. In this study, we provided evidence that 17β-estradiol (E2) could significantly promote endometrial cancer cells viability, migration and invasion through activation of IL-6 pathway, which involved in its downstream pathway and target genes (p-Stat3, Bcl-2, Mcl-1, CyclinD1 and MMP2). Meanwhile, utilization of IL-6 neutralizing antibody could partially attenuate the increased cancer growth and invasion abilities in Ishikawa and RL95-2 endometrial cancer cell lines and an orthotopic endometrial cancer model. We established a causative link between estrogen and IL-6 signaling activation in the development of endometrial cancer. The molecular mechanism defined in this study provided the evidence that E2 promotes endometrial carcinoma progression via activating the IL-6 pathway, indicating that interruption of IL-6 might be an essential therapeutic strategy in estrogen-dependent endometrial cancer.

Open access

Thomas Reinehr, Alexandra Kulle, Juliane Rothermel, Caroline Knop-Schmenn, Nina Lass, Christina Bosse and Paul-Martin Holterhus

, 21-deoxycorticosterone, deoxycorticosterone, corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, cortisol, cortisone, androstenedione, testosterone, dehydroepiandrostenedione sulfate (DHEA-S), estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle

Open access

Katarzyna Wyskida, Grzegorz Franik, Tomasz Wikarek, Aleksander Owczarek, Alham Delroba, Jerzy Chudek, Jerzy Sikora and Magdalena Olszanecka-Glinianowicz

the menstrual cycle in both ovulatory and anovulatory women. Additionally, in some ( 13 ), but not in other studies ( 14 ), the association between changes in plasma leptin levels and variations of both estradiol and progesterone release were observed

Open access

Shenglong Le, Leiting Xu, Moritz Schumann, Na Wu, Timo Törmäkangas, Markku Alén, Sulin Cheng and Petri Wiklund

centrifugation and stored immediately at −80°C until analysis. The samples from different time points were analyzed by one technician using the same kits and instrument. Estradiol (E2), testosterone and SHBG were determined by ELISA (NovaTec Immunodiagnostica

Open access

M Boering, P R van Dijk, S J J Logtenberg, K H Groenier, B H R Wolffenbuttel, R O B Gans, N Kleefstra and H J G Bilo

gonadotropins and sex steroids, concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, and 17-β-estradiol were also assessed. Subjects, materials and methods Study design This study is a post hoc analysis of a