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Wafaa M Rashed, Anas Saad, Muneer Al-Husseini, Ahmed Mahmoud Galal, Assem Mohamed Ismael, Ahmed M Al-Tayep, Ayman El Shafie, Mahmoud Ahmed Ali and Ahmad Samir Alfaar

second malignant neoplasm (SMN) ( 4 ). We aim to report the incidence of the adrenal gland malignancies as a second primary malignancy based on the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results ‘SEER’ database. Patients and methods We obtained data

Open access

Adriana J van Ballegooijen, Marjolein Visser, Marieke B Snijder, Jacqueline M Dekker, Giel Nijpels, Coen D A Stehouwer, Michaela Diamant and Ingeborg A Brouwer

(eGFR) was calculated using serum creatinine values – determined using the Jaffé method – according to the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation (18) . Subjects filled out questionnaires to obtain self-reported information

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Ali Abbasi

2015 372 1608 – 1618 . ( doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1404881 ). 6 VanderWeele TJ Tchetgen Tchetgen EJ Cornelis M Kraft P . Methodological challenges in mendelian randomization . Epidemiology 2014 25 427 – 435 . ( doi:10.1097/EDE

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Karim Gariani, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Gérard Waeber, Peter Vollenweider and François R Jornayvaz

epidemiology and genetic determinants of cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic syndrome . BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2008 8 6 . ( https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2261-8-6 ) 18366642 10.1186/1471-2261-8-6 25 Jornayvaz FR Vollenweider P Bochud M

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A V Dreval, I V Trigolosova, I V Misnikova, Y A Kovalyova, R S Tishenina, I A Barsukov, A V Vinogradova and B H R Wolffenbuttel

of Medicine 1979 301 1138 – 1142 . ( doi:10.1056/NEJM197911223012102 ). 2 Colao A Ferone D Marzullo P Lombardi G . Systemic complications of acromegaly: epidemiology, pathogenesis, and management . Endocrine Reviews 2004 25 102

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Jakob Kirkegård, Dora Körmendiné Farkas, Jens Otto Lunde Jørgensen and Deirdre P Cronin-Fenton

Pedersen L Sorensen HT. The Danish Civil Registration System as a tool in epidemiology . European Journal of Epidemiology 2014 29 541 – 549 . ( https://doi.org/10.1007/s10654-014-9930-3 ) 24965263 10.1007/s10654-014-9930-3 9 Lynge E Sandegaard JL

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Peter L Kristensen, Ulrik Pedersen-Bjergaard, Rikke Due-Andersen, Thomas Høi-Hansen, Lise Grimmeshave, Valeriya Lyssenko, Leif Groop, Jens J Holst, Allan A Vaag and Birger Thorsteinsson

Introduction

In healthy carriers of the T allele of the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2), fasting plasma glucagon concentrations are lower compared with those with the C allele. We hypothesised that presence of the T allele is associated with a diminished glucagon response during hypoglycaemia and a higher frequency of severe hypoglycaemia (SH) in type 1 diabetes (T1DM).

Material and methods

This is a post hoc study of an earlier prospective observational study of SH and four mechanistic studies of physiological responses to hypoglycaemia. 269 patients with T1DM were followed in a one-year observational study. A log-linear negative binomial model was applied with events of SH as dependent variable and TCF7L2 alleles as explanatory variable. In four experimental studies including 65 people, TCF7L2 genotyping was done and plasma glucagon concentration during experimental hypoglycaemia was determined.

Results

Incidences of SH were TT 0.54, TC 0.98 and CC 1.01 episodes per patient-year with no significant difference between groups. During experimental hypoglycaemia, the TCF7L2 polymorphism did not influence glucagon secretion.

Discussion

Patients with T1DM carrying the T allele of the TCF7L2 polymorphism do not exhibit diminished glucagon response during hypoglycaemia and are not at increased risk of severe hypoglycaemia compared with carriers of the C allele.

Open access

Aleksandra Gilis-Januszewska, Łukasz Kluczyński and Alicja Hubalewska-Dydejczyk

Introduction and epidemiology Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is commonly defined as any brain pathology caused by an external force. TBI, sometimes referred to as a ‘silent epidemic’, affects about 69 million people each year, occurs commonly in

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Martine Cohen-Solal, Thomas Funck-Brentano and Pablo Ureña Torres

and help to guide treatment decisions. Epidemiology of skeletal fractures in CKD The management of CKD has greatly improved in the last few decades, allowing a longer life expectancy and a reduction of subsequent age-related bone loss

Open access

Nella Augusta Greggio, Elisa Rossi, Silvia Calabria, Alice Meneghin, Joaquin Gutierrez de Rubalcava, Carlo Piccinni and Antonella Pedrini

the epidemiology of SH in children and pre-adolescents are scarce; however, the prevalence of SH in this population is estimated to be slightly lower than 2% ( 4 ). SH can have autoimmune or non-autoimmune origins. It can be distinguished between