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Erika Peverelli, Federica Ermetici, Sabrina Corbetta, Ettore Gozzini, Laura Avagliano, Marco A Zappa, Gaetano Bulfamante, Paolo Beck-Peccoz, Anna Spada and Giovanna Mantovani

of different factors (1, 2) , which have been only partially elucidated. cAMP acts as an intracellular second messenger in the regulation of a number of different cellular processes, such as cell growth and differentiation. It is known that cAMP

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Amarjit Saini, Linda Björkhem-Bergman, Johan Boström, Mats Lilja, Michael Melin, Karl Olsson, Lena Ekström, Peter Bergman, Mikael Altun, Eric Rullman and Thomas Gustafsson

VDR-null mutant mice were smaller than those in WT mice ( 22 ). Moreover, skeletal muscles from 3-week-old mice lacking VDR display an abnormally elevated expression of myogenic differentiation factors that are important for the regulation of the

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Irasema Mendieta, Rosa Elvira Nuñez-Anita, Gilberto Pérez-Sánchez, Lenin Pavón, Alfredo Rodríguez-Cruz, Guadalupe García-Alcocer and Laura Cristina Berumen

been proposed that new cells with neuroendocrine-like properties originate from pre-existing epithelial cancer cells via neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) ( 12 ). NED can be replicated in vitro by the exposure of cells to agents that elevate or

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Chiara Mele, Maria Teresa Samà, Alessandro Angelo Bisoffi, Marina Caputo, Valentina Bullara, Stefania Mai, Gillian Elisabeth Walker, Flavia Prodam, Paolo Marzullo, Gianluca Aimaretti and Loredana Pagano

Introduction The incidence rates of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) have been rising in many countries over the last few decades ( 1 , 2 ) along with a parallel increase in obesity and metabolic disorders ( 3 ). Even if the growing

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Tiemo S Gerber, Arno Schad, Nils Hartmann, Erik Springer, Ulrich Zechner and Thomas J Musholt

Introduction Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) represents an aggressive variant of thyroid cancer that predominantly arises from the differentiated variants of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma (PTC and FTC, respectively

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Melissa Braga, Zena Simmons, Keith C Norris, Monica G Ferrini and Jorge N Artaza

decipher the underlying mechanism or the role vitamin D plays in association with myogenic differentiation. Vitamin D, a fat-soluble secosteroid prohormone, is obtained from sun exposure or from dietary sources. During exposure to sunlight 7

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Natalie Su-Jing Yap, Richard Maher and Diana Louise Learoyd

Introduction Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is the most common endocrine malignancy, of which the majority are papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). While prognosis is generally favourable, up to 20% of patients develop local or regional

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Andrea Mazurat, Andrea Torroni, Jane Hendrickson-Rebizant, Harbinder Benning, Richard W Nason and K Alok Pathak

Introduction Well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma (WDTC) represents a group of thyroid cancers that are associated with increasing incidence and excellent posttreatment outcome (1) . This group comprises different histological types, the most

Open access

Eugenie S Lim, Shanty G Shah, Mona Waterhouse, Scott Akker, William Drake, Nick Plowman, Daniel M Berney, Polly Richards, Ashok Adams, Ewa Nowosinska, Carmel Brennan and Maralyn Druce

Introduction Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is the most frequently occurring endocrine cancer and its incidence has been increasing steadily in men and women over the last few decades ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). DTC includes papillary thyroid cancer

Open access

Erika Urbano Lima, Ileana G S Rubio, Joaquim Custodio Da Silva, Ana Luiza Galrão, Danielle Pêssoa, Taise Cerqueira Oliveira, Fabiane Carrijo, Igor Silva Campos, Luciano Fonseca Espinheira, Luiz Jose Sampaio, Claudio Rogerio Lima, Janete Maria Cerutti and Helton Estrela Ramos

Introduction Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) has continued to increase over the past several decades, likely due to enhanced detection ( 1 , 2 ). Cancer research, in general, has benefited greatly from many of the new scientific