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Eva O Melin, Jonatan Dereke, Maria Thunander and Magnus Hillman

Introduction Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common complication of diabetes ( 1 , 2 ) and is a major cause of blindness ( 3 , 4 ). DR progresses over time, but fortunately only a limited number of patients acquire one of the two major

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E R Polina, F M Oliveira, R C Sbruzzi, D Crispim, L H Canani and K G Santos

Introduction Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a neurodegenerative complication of diabetes ( 1 ) consistently associated with other diabetic complications and with an overall worse prognosis ( 2 ). Hyperglycaemia triggers the activation of

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W Liu, Y Wang, X Han, X Cai, Y Zhu, M Zhang, S Gong, J Li and L Ji

are the conventionally used predictors of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic nephropathy (DN). ( 2 , 3 ) Previous studies have shown that almost all T1DM patients are likely to develop some degree of DN within 20 years of diagnosis. ( 4 , 5 ) In

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Taísa A R Vicente, Ívina E S Rocha, Roberto Salvatori, Carla R P Oliveira, Rossana M C Pereira, Anita H O Souza, Viviane C Campos, Elenilde G Santos, Rachel D C Araújo Diniz, Eugênia H O Valença, Carlos C Epitácio-Pereira, Mario C P Oliveira, Andrea Mari and Manuel H Aguiar-Oliveira

. Diabetic retinopathy in two patients with congenital IGFI deficiency (Laron syndrome) . European Journal of Endocrinology 2004 151 103 – 106 . ( doi:10.1530/eje.0.1510103 ). 21 Laron Z Weinberger D . Diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy and

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Chunliang Yang, Junyi Li, Fei Sun, Haifeng Zhou, Jia Yang and Chao Yang

Actions of SGK1 Functional outcomes Diabetic retinopathy Facilitate the accumulation of sorbitol Retinal microvascular lesions Enhance the expression of EDB + FN Dysregulated angiogenesis Hinder the clearance of glutamate

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Taís S Assmann, Mariana Recamonde-Mendoza, Bianca M De Souza and Daisy Crispim

5 19 6.5 Yousefzadeh et al . 2015 ( 55 ) Iran Male Sprague-Dawley rats induced with STZ Sciatic nerve 6/6 RT-PCR 0.05 1 1 0 6.0 DR, diabetic retinopathy; EPC, Endothelial Progenitor cells; N/A, not available

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Ozlem Atan Sahin, Damla Goksen, Aysel Ozpinar, Muhittin Serdar and Huseyin Onay

has been found to be a susceptibility factor for the development of diabetic retinopathy ( 40 , 41 ). In addition, vitamin D-binding protein gene polymorphisms were found to be associated with diabetes-associated antibody insulinoma antigen 2 and with

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Nidan Qiao

and outcome proportion. If a model is to be truly applied in the clinical setting, it should be validated in another database. Recent food drug administration approved aided diagnostic tool for diabetic retinopathy diagnosis, atrial fibrillation

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Louise Færch, Anders Juul, Ulrik Pedersen-Bjergaard and Birger Thorsteinsson

Sandler L Joplin GF Kohner EM . Long-term follow-up of patients who underwent yttrium-90 pituitary implantation for treatment of proliferative diabetic retinopathy . Diabetologia 1987 30 199 – 207 . ( doi:10.1007/BF00270416 ). 3 Luft R

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E N Dudinskaya, O N Tkacheva, M V Shestakova, N V Brailova, I D Strazhesko, D U Akasheva, O Y Isaykina, N V Sharashkina, D A Kashtanova and S A Boytsov

-proliferative and proliferative diabetic retinopathy and stage 3b, 4, or 5 chronic kidney disease); clinical CVD with the New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification class II–IV chronic heart failure; presence of valvular heart disease; chronic liver and