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Hershel Raff and Hariprasad Trivedi

Introduction The measurement of salivary cortisol has emerged as a first-line test in the evaluation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis in humans and, in particular, for the diagnosis of endogenous hypercortisolism (Cushing

Open access

Andrea V Haas, Paul N Hopkins, Nancy J Brown, Luminita H Pojoga, Jonathan S Williams, Gail K Adler, and Gordon H Williams

role of both overt and non-overt hypercortisolism in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, much less is known about the CV effects of cortisol concentrations within the physiological range. While some studies have shown a link

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Bjørn O Åsvold, Valdemar Grill, Ketil Thorstensen, and Marit R Bjørgaas

Introduction The 1 mg overnight dexamethasone suppression test (DST) is a common initial test for endogenous Cushing's syndrome (1) . The principle of the test is that dexamethasone will suppress ACTH and cortisol secretion in healthy individuals

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I Azzam, S Gilad, R Limor, N Stern, and Y Greenman

, prolactin and cortisol ( 15 , 16 , 17 ). The stimulation of the HPA axis by ghrelin is exerted predominantly at the hypothalamic level ( 18 ) through vasopressin stimulation ( 19 ) and indirect activation of CRH neurons ( 20 , 21 ). Direct effects of

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Ferdinand Roelfsema, Peter Y Liu, Rebecca Yang, Paul Takahashi, and Johannes D Veldhuis

that it may be useful as an immuno-neuroendocrine probe of adrenal function ( 5 ). Nonetheless, virtually all studies were uncontrolled and performed in patients with advanced cancer, in whom cortisol responses differ from those of healthy men ( 5 ). In

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Ferdinand Roelfsema, Diana van Heemst, Ali Iranmanesh, Paul Takahashi, Rebecca Yang, and Johannes D Veldhuis

inferences. Nonetheless, multivariate analysis also is unreliable in small cohorts ( 19 , 20 ). In addition, given the large concentration difference across the 24-h cycle and the marked pulsatility of cortisol, studies using a single sample, or a few blood

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Eva Olga Melin, Magnus Hillman, and Mona Landin-Olsson

with T1D was 35%, almost twice as high as in the non-diabetic population ( 2 ). Several factors might contribute to the development of hypertension, such as increased cortisol secretion ( 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 ), obesity ( 8 , 9 ), physical

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L Ghataore, I Chakraborti, S J Aylwin, K-M Schulte, D Dworakowska, P Coskeran, and N F Taylor

patients treated with mitotane (9) . Patients with Cushing's syndrome receiving mitotane have shown decrease in the adrenal cortisol secretion rate over time but a faster clinical benefit, suggesting that cortisol bioavailability is also diminished (10

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Soraya Puglisi, Paola Perotti, Mattia Barbot, Paolo Cosio, Carla Scaroni, Antonio Stigliano, Pina Lardo, Valentina Morelli, Elisa Polledri, Iacopo Chiodini, Giuseppe Reimondo, Anna Pia, and Massimo Terzolo

mortality ratio between 2.0 and 4.0 ( 2 ). Because of these clinical consequences, CS requires a prompt and definitive resolution since the duration of exposure to cortisol excess is a factor portending a worse prognosis ( 3 ). Surgery is the mainstay of

Open access

Siphiwe N Dlamini, Zané Lombard, Lisa K Micklesfield, Nigel Crowther, Shane A Norris, Tracy Snyman, Andrew A Crawford, Brian R Walker, and Julia H Goedecke

cortisol leads to Cushing’s syndrome, which exhibits metabolic features similar to metabolic syndrome ( 2 ). Accordingly, previous cross-sectional studies suggest that circulating cortisol concentrations are associated with metabolic syndrome, its