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Hershel Raff and Hariprasad Trivedi

Introduction The measurement of salivary cortisol has emerged as a first-line test in the evaluation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis in humans and, in particular, for the diagnosis of endogenous hypercortisolism (Cushing

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Andrea V Haas, Paul N Hopkins, Nancy J Brown, Luminita H Pojoga, Jonathan S Williams, Gail K Adler and Gordon H Williams

role of both overt and non-overt hypercortisolism in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, much less is known about the CV effects of cortisol concentrations within the physiological range. While some studies have shown a link

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Bjørn O Åsvold, Valdemar Grill, Ketil Thorstensen and Marit R Bjørgaas

Introduction The 1 mg overnight dexamethasone suppression test (DST) is a common initial test for endogenous Cushing's syndrome (1) . The principle of the test is that dexamethasone will suppress ACTH and cortisol secretion in healthy individuals

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I Azzam, S Gilad, R Limor, N Stern and Y Greenman

, prolactin and cortisol ( 15 , 16 , 17 ). The stimulation of the HPA axis by ghrelin is exerted predominantly at the hypothalamic level ( 18 ) through vasopressin stimulation ( 19 ) and indirect activation of CRH neurons ( 20 , 21 ). Direct effects of

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Ferdinand Roelfsema, Diana van Heemst, Ali Iranmanesh, Paul Takahashi, Rebecca Yang and Johannes D Veldhuis

inferences. Nonetheless, multivariate analysis also is unreliable in small cohorts ( 19 , 20 ). In addition, given the large concentration difference across the 24-h cycle and the marked pulsatility of cortisol, studies using a single sample, or a few blood

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L Ghataore, I Chakraborti, S J Aylwin, K-M Schulte, D Dworakowska, P Coskeran and N F Taylor

patients treated with mitotane (9) . Patients with Cushing's syndrome receiving mitotane have shown decrease in the adrenal cortisol secretion rate over time but a faster clinical benefit, suggesting that cortisol bioavailability is also diminished (10

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Soraya Puglisi, Paola Perotti, Mattia Barbot, Paolo Cosio, Carla Scaroni, Antonio Stigliano, Pina Lardo, Valentina Morelli, Elisa Polledri, Iacopo Chiodini, Giuseppe Reimondo, Anna Pia and Massimo Terzolo

mortality ratio between 2.0 and 4.0 ( 2 ). Because of these clinical consequences, CS requires a prompt and definitive resolution since the duration of exposure to cortisol excess is a factor portending a worse prognosis ( 3 ). Surgery is the mainstay of

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Milène Tetsi Nomigni, Sophie Ouzounian, Alice Benoit, Jacqueline Vadrot, Frédérique Tissier, Sylvie Renouf, Hervé Lefebvre, Sophie Christin-Maitre and Estelle Louiset

androgen and cortisol oversecretion is highly suggestive of adrenocortical carcinoma (12) . In very few cases, androgen-secreting adrenal lesions have been identified as bilateral macronodular hyperplasia (13, 14) , adenoma (15) , primary pigmented

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Henryk F Urbanski, Kevin Mueller and Cynthia L Bethea

. Blood samples were collected from each animal under ketamine HCl sedation (10 mg/kg body weight, intramuscular), at Month −1 and again at Month 24; the serum was stored frozen at −20°C and subsequently assayed for leptin, cortisol and DHEAS. Note

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Jonneke J Hollanders, Bibian van der Voorn, Noera Kieviet, Koert M Dolman, Yolanda B de Rijke, Erica L T van den Akker, Joost Rotteveel, Adriaan Honig and Martijn J J Finken

estriol) and precursor GCs, since the adrenocortical enzymes are not fully matured yet ( 5 ). Subsequently, during the last 6–8 weeks of pregnancy, the more matured fetal adrenal produces increasing amounts of cortisol and cortisone under the control of