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Nikolina Zdraveska, Maja Zdravkovska, Violeta Anastasovska, Elena Sukarova-Angelovska and Mirjana Kocova

Introduction Thyroid hormones play important role in the processes of neuronal migration and differentiation, myelination and synaptogenesis and are essential for proper neurodevelopment ( 1 ). Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is generally

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Chunyun Fu, Shiyu Luo, Yingfeng Li, Qifei Li, Xuehua Hu, Mengting Li, Yue Zhang, Jiasun Su, Xuyun Hu, Yun Chen, Jin Wang, Bobo Xie, Jingsi Luo, Xin Fan, Shaoke Chen and Yiping Shen

Introduction Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is one of the most common causes of intellectual disability and growth retardation with worldwide incidence ranging from 1:2000 to 1:4000 newborns ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). Newborn screening allows for early

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Luca Persani, Biagio Cangiano and Marco Bonomi

CeH may vary depending on the cause. It is worth noting that the typical manifestations of severe congenital hypothyroidism are rarely present at birth in most of the CeH patients since the chorionic gonadotropin could be effective in stimulating the

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Maurício Martins da Silva, Lueni Lopes Felix Xavier, Carlos Frederico Lima Gonçalves, Ana Paula Santos-Silva, Francisca Diana Paiva-Melo, Mariana Lopes de Freitas, Rodrigo Soares Fortunato, Leandro Miranda-Alves and Andrea Claudia Freitas Ferreira

.10.7934 16 Moreno JC Bikker H Kempers MJ van Trotsenburg AS Baas F de Vijlder JJ Vulsma T Ris-Stalpers C . Inactivating mutations in the gene for thyroid oxidase 2 (THOX2) and congenital hypothyroidism . New England Journal of Medicine 2002 347 95

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Nella Augusta Greggio, Elisa Rossi, Silvia Calabria, Alice Meneghin, Joaquin Gutierrez de Rubalcava, Carlo Piccinni and Antonella Pedrini

during screening for congenital hypothyroidism in new-borns, or in case of symptoms that are consistent with thyroid alterations, or also in case of additional visits for chronic conditions. It should be noticed that neonatal hyperthyrotropynemia can

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Fan Zhang, Jian Chen, Xinyue Lin, Shiqiao Peng, Xiaohui Yu, Zhongyan Shan and Weiping Teng

-Duarte E Dos Santos AQ Pierozan P de Souza DF Woehl VM Fernandes MC Silva FR , Congenital hypothyroidism alters the oxidative status, enzyme activities and morphological parameters in the hippocampus of developing rats . Molecular and

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Elena Galazzi, Paolo Duminuco, Mirella Moro, Fabiana Guizzardi, Nicoletta Marazzi, Alessandro Sartorio, Sabrina Avignone, Marco Bonomi, Luca Persani and Maria Teresa Bonati

.12.010 ) 13 de Filippis T Gelmini G Paraboschi E Vigone MC Di Frenna M Marelli F Bonomi M Cassio A Larizza D Moro M , et al . A frequent oligogenic involvement in congenital hypothyroidism . Human Molecular Genetics 2017 26 2507 – 2514 . ( https

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Elvira C Arellanes-Licea, José Ávila-Mendoza, Elizabeth C Ramírez-Martínez, Eugenia Ramos, Nancy Uribe-González, Carlos Arámburo, Teresa Morales and Maricela Luna

.2011-1982 17 Tang H Zhang Y Yu X Song J Xu C Wan Y. Changes in growth hormone (GH), GH receptor, and GH signal transduction in hippocampus of congenital hypothyroid rats . Journal of Neuroscience Research 2011 89 248 – 255 . ( https

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Caroline Serrano-Nascimento, Rafael Barrera Salgueiro, Kaio Fernando Vitzel, Thiago Pantaleão, Vânia Maria Corrêa da Costa and Maria Tereza Nunes

, congenital hypothyroidism and cognitive deficits in children ( 30 , 31 ). Interestingly, TH are detected in embryonic fetal tissues even before the full development of fetal thyroid gland, indicating the important role of maternal TH transfer to the fetal

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Anne H van der Spek, Olga V Surovtseva, Saskia Aan, Anton T J Tool, Annemarie van de Geer, Korcan Demir, Anja L M van Gucht, A S Paul van Trotsenburg, Timo K van den Berg, Eric Fliers and Anita Boelen

Pillay K. Congenital hypothyroidism and immunodeficiency: evidence for an endocrine-immune interaction . Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism 1998 11 757 – 761 . 30 De Vito P Balducci V Leone S Percario Z Mangino