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Vickie Braithwaite, Kerry S Jones, Shima Assar, Inez Schoenmakers and Ann Prentice

Introduction Elevated plasma C-terminal fibroblast growth factor 23 (C-FGF23) concentrations have been recorded in Gambian children with putative Ca-deficiency rickets (1) and, at a lower prevalence, in apparently healthy children from the local

Open access

Thomas Reinehr, Alberto Sánchez-Guijo, Nina Lass and Stefan A Wudy

Introduction Obesity is a complex condition associated with changes in many steroid hormones also including androgens: concentrations of testosterone and DHEAS and their precursors are increased in children ( 1 , 2 ) and obese women ( 3

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Amalie Carlsson, Kaspar Sørensen, Anna-Maria Andersson, Hanne Frederiksen and Anders Juul

( 4 ) and obesity ( 5 ) in adults and obesity ( 6 ) in children. Phthalates are used as softeners in PVC plastics. As phthalates are continuously emitted from PVC, humans can be exposed through ingestion, inhalation or by dermal contact ( 7

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Alessandro Ciresi, Stefano Radellini, Valentina Guarnotta, Maria Grazia Mineo and Carla Giordano

relationship between GH and gonadal steroid levels in children is difficult to establish because steroid levels are very low prior to puberty. Therefore, although the clinical features related to sexual dimorphism of the somatotroph axis have been well

Open access

Giorgio Radetti, Mariacarolina Salerno, Chiara Guzzetti, Marco Cappa, Andrea Corrias, Alessandra Cassio, Graziano Cesaretti, Roberto Gastaldi, Mario Rotondi, Fiorenzo Lupi, Antonio Fanolla, Giovanna Weber and Sandro Loche

started in patients with either subclinical (high TSH with normal fT4) or overt hypothyroidism (subnormal fT4 and increased TSH). There is no consensus on the timing to start or discontinue therapy based on TSH concentrations in children and adolescents

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Emmanuelle Motte, Anya Rothenbuhler, Stephan Gaillard, Najiba Lahlou, Cécile Teinturier, Régis Coutant and Agnès Linglart

therapy for CD in children, its efficacy and safety in this context has not been reported so far. We describe here the efficacy and safety of mitotane as treatment of CD in nine children in comparison to 13 patients cured by TSS. Table 1 Synopsis of

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Søs Dragsbæk Larsen, Christine Dalgård, Mathilde Egelund Christensen, Sine Lykkedegn, Louise Bjørkholt Andersen, Marianne Andersen, Dorte Glintborg and Henrik Thybo Christesen

adulthood ( 2 , 3 ), making it essential to prevent high BP in children. Identification of modifiable, early risk factors is a key in designing initiatives preventing future cardio-vascular events. Recently, hypovitaminosis D, defined as serum 25

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Zeming Liu, Di Hu, Yihui Huang, Sichao Chen, Wen Zeng, Ling Zhou, Wei Zhou, Min Wang, Haifeng Feng, Wei Wei, Chao Zhang, Danyang Chen and Liang Guo

published studies concerning thyroid cancer in adults than in children. However, recommendations for adults may not be appropriate for children, for whom thyroid cancer characteristics slightly differ from those in adults. Compared with adult patients, the

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Zi-Di Xu, Wei Zhang, Min Liu, Huan-Min Wang, Pei-Pei Hui, Xue-Jun Liang, Jie Yan, Yu-Jun Wu, Yan-Mei Sang, Cheng Zhu and Gui-Chen Ni

and a series of neurological sequelae. Therefore, early diagnosis and effective treatment are essential to improve the prognosis of diseased children. The clinical manifestations, histological types, diagnoses, treatment effects and long-term prognoses

Open access

Changwei Liu, Jingwen Wang, Yuanyuan Wan, Xiaona Xia, Jian Pan, Wei Gu and Mei Li

Background Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease occurring in the pancreatic islets. The disease can affect people of any age, but onset usually occurs in children or young adults, which accounts for 90% of diabetes in