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Andrea V Haas, Paul N Hopkins, Nancy J Brown, Luminita H Pojoga, Jonathan S Williams, Gail K Adler and Gordon H Williams

There are conflicting data on whether variations of physiologic cortisol levels associated with cardiovascular risk. We hypothesize that prior discordant findings are related to problems associated with varying sample size, techniques for assessing cardiovascular risk and failure to adequately account for environmental factors. To address these issues, we utilized a large sample size, selected the Framingham risk score to compute cardiovascular risk and performed the study in a highly controlled setting. We had two main objectives: determine whether higher, yet physiologic, cortisol levels associated with increased cardiovascular risk and determine whether caveolin-1 (rs926198) risk allele carriers associated with increased cardiovascular risk. This was a cross-sectional study of 574 non-diabetic individuals who completed a common protocol. Data collection included fasting blood samples, blood pressure measurements and a 24-h urine-free cortisol collection. Five hundred seventeen of these participants also completed caveolin-1 genotyping. Subjects were classified as belonging to either the low-mode or high-mode urine-free cortisol groups, based on the bimodal distribution of urine-free cortisol. In multivariate analysis, Framingham risk score was statistically higher in the high-mode cortisol group (10.22 (mean) ± 0.43 (s.e.m.)) compared to the low-mode cortisol group (7.73 ± 0.34), P < 0.001. Framingham risk score was also statistically higher in the caveolin-1 risk allele carriers (8.91 ± 0.37) compared to caveolin-1 non-risk allele carriers (7.59 ± 0.48), P = 0.034. Overall, the estimated effect on Framingham risk score of carrying the caveolin-1 risk allele was 1.33 ± 0.61, P = 0.029. Both urinary cortisol and caveolin-1 risk allele status are independent predictors of Framingham risk score.

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Vito Francic, Martin Keppel, Verena Schwetz, Christian Trummer, Marlene Pandis, Valentin Borzan, Martin R Grübler, Nicolas D Verheyen, Marcus E Kleber, Graciela Delgado, Angela P Moissl, Benjamin Dieplinger, Winfried März, Andreas Tomaschitz, Stefan Pilz and Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch

Vitamin D Hypertension Trial and the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study (LURIC). Both cohorts are described separately in the following section. Styrian vitamin D hypertension trial (study A) Study design The first part of the

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Angelo Maria Patti, Kalliopi Pafili, Nikolaos Papanas and Manfredi Rizzo

40 Sullivan SD Umans JG Ratner R. Gestational diabetes: implications for cardiovascular health . Current Diabetes Reports 2012 12 43 – 52 . ( ) 10.1007/s11892-011-0238-3 22037824 41 Rizzo M

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Akinori Sairaku, Yukiko Nakano, Yuko Uchimura, Takehito Tokuyama, Hiroshi Kawazoe, Yoshikazu Watanabe, Hiroya Matsumura and Yasuki Kihara

Vittinghoff E Gottdiener JS Newman AB . Subclinical thyroid dysfunction, cardiac function, and the risk of heart failure. The Cardiovascular Health study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2008 52 1152 – 1159 . ( doi:10.1016/j

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Jennifer K Y Ko, Thomas F J King, Louise Williams, Sarah M Creighton and Gerard S Conway

after completion of puberty ( 2 ). Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is required after gonadectomy in order to maintain secondary sexual characteristics, bone and cardiovascular health and to promote general wellbeing and sexual function. In the study by

Open access

Ali Abbasi

Gesundheitsforschung in der Region Augsburg; EFS-YT2D, Exeter Family Study-Young-onset T2D; NDCCS, Norfolk Diabetes Case Control Study; METSIM, METabolic Syndrome In Men; DIAGEN, DIAbetes GENetic study; CHS, Cardiovascular Health Study; WHI-OS, Women's Health

Open access

Li Jing and Wang Chengji

exercise regularly as a means of improving social integration and cardiovascular health ( 8 ). Thus, a better understanding of the effects of exercise on the metabolic response in T2D patients will allow clinicians to prescribe exercise to their patients

Open access

Susanna Cirera, Sophia G Moesgaard, Nora E Zois, Nathja Ravn, Jens P Goetze, Signe E Cremer, Tom Teerlink, Páll S Leifsson, Jesper L Honge, J Michael Hasenkam and Lisbeth H Olsen

BR März W . Symmetrical and asymmetrical dimethylarginine as predictors for mortality in patients referred for coronary angiography: the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health study . Clinical Chemistry 2011 57 112 – 121 . ( doi:10

Open access

Karoline Winckler, Lise Tarnow, Louise Lundby-Christensen, Thomas P Almdal, Niels Wiinberg, Pia Eiken, Trine W Boesgaard and the CIMT trial group

adults. Cardiovascular Health Study Collaborative Research Group . New England Journal of Medicine 1999 340 14 – 22 . ( doi:10.1056/NEJM199901073400103 ). 6 Sibal L Agarwal SC Home PD . Carotid intima–media thickness as a surrogate marker of

Open access

Søs Dragsbæk Larsen, Christine Dalgård, Mathilde Egelund Christensen, Sine Lykkedegn, Louise Bjørkholt Andersen, Marianne Andersen, Dorte Glintborg and Henrik Thybo Christesen

elucidated ( 12 ). Adverse events in utero and in early life may have programming effects on BP and cardiovascular health in later life ( 13 ). Foetal vitamin D status depends solely on the 25OHD concentrations of the mother ( 10 ). Studies examining the